Aslim Taslam – Accept Islam and you will be saved

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Aslim Taslam -Accept Islam and you will be saved PDF Print E-mail

The phrase

=aslim taslam

is translated by some as:

“Accept Islam and you will be saved”

yet it can also be translated as

“Submit to Islam and you will have

peace and security,”  in other words:

“salvation”

a common place for many to start study and investigation is Wikipedia, but be careful with the slipperiness and vicissitudes of variability     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aslim_Taslam

But for a more serious student, one should refer to the Quran, Allah’s revelation to man, and to the Sunnah (“Way” of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him):


In the Quran

More coming insh-Allah

In the Sunnah

As reported in authentic, verified historical scriptures of Islam, al-Bukhari and Muslim and others:

6 –

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ الْحَكَمُ بْنُ نَافِعٍ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ عَنْ الزُّهْرِيِّ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ بْنَ حَرْبٍ أَخْبَرَهُ

أَنَّ هِرَقْلَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ فِي رَكْبٍ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ وَكَانُوا تِجَارًا بِالشَّأْمِ فِي الْمُدَّةِ الَّتِي كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَادَّ فِيهَا أَبَا سُفْيَانَ وَكُفَّارَ قُرَيْشٍ فَأَتَوْهُ وَهُمْ بِإِيلِيَاءَ فَدَعَاهُمْ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ وَحَوْلَهُ عُظَمَاءُ الرُّومِ ثُمَّ دَعَاهُمْ وَدَعَا بِتَرْجُمَانِهِ فَقَالَ أَيُّكُمْ أَقْرَبُ نَسَبًا بِهَذَا الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ فَقَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا أَقْرَبُهُمْ نَسَبًا فَقَالَ أَدْنُوهُ مِنِّي وَقَرِّبُوا أَصْحَابَهُ فَاجْعَلُوهُمْ عِنْدَ ظَهْرِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لِتَرْجُمَانِهِ قُلْ لَهُمْ إِنِّي سَائِلٌ هَذَا عَنْ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ فَإِنْ كَذَبَنِي فَكَذِّبُوهُ فَوَاللَّهِ لَوْلَا الْحَيَاءُ مِنْ أَنْ يَأْثِرُوا عَلَيَّ كَذِبًا لَكَذَبْتُ عَنْهُ ثُمَّ كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَا سَأَلَنِي عَنْهُ أَنْ قَالَ كَيْفَ نَسَبُهُ فِيكُمْ قُلْتُ هُوَ فِينَا ذُو نَسَبٍ قَالَ فَهَلْ قَالَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ قَطُّ قَبْلَهُ قُلْتُ لَا قَالَ فَهَلْ كَانَ مِنْ آبَائِهِ مِنْ مَلِكٍ قُلْتُ لَا قَالَ فَأَشْرَافُ النَّاسِ يَتَّبِعُونَهُ أَمْ ضُعَفَاؤُهُمْ فَقُلْتُ بَلْ ضُعَفَاؤُهُمْ قَالَ أَيَزِيدُونَ أَمْ يَنْقُصُونَ قُلْتُ بَلْ يَزِيدُونَ قَالَ فَهَلْ يَرْتَدُّ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ سَخْطَةً لِدِينِهِ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ فِيهِ قُلْتُ لَا قَالَ فَهَلْ كُنْتُمْ تَتَّهِمُونَهُ بِالْكَذِبِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقُولَ مَا قَالَ قُلْتُ لَا قَالَ فَهَلْ يَغْدِرُ قُلْتُ لَا وَنَحْنُ مِنْهُ فِي مُدَّةٍ لَا نَدْرِي مَا هُوَ فَاعِلٌ فِيهَا قَالَ وَلَمْ تُمْكِنِّي كَلِمَةٌ أُدْخِلُ فِيهَا شَيْئًا غَيْرُ هَذِهِ الْكَلِمَةِ قَالَ فَهَلْ قَاتَلْتُمُوهُ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ قِتَالُكُمْ إِيَّاهُ قُلْتُ الْحَرْبُ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُ سِجَالٌ يَنَالُ مِنَّا وَنَنَالُ مِنْهُ قَالَ مَاذَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ قُلْتُ يَقُولُ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَحْدَهُ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَاتْرُكُوا مَا يَقُولُ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَيَأْمُرُنَا بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَالصِّدْقِ وَالْعَفَافِ وَالصِّلَةِ فَقَالَ لِلتَّرْجُمَانِ قُلْ لَهُ سَأَلْتُكَ عَنْ نَسَبِهِ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّهُ فِيكُمْ ذُو نَسَبٍ فَكَذَلِكَ الرُّسُلُ تُبْعَثُ فِي نَسَبِ قَوْمِهَا وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ قَالَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لَا فَقُلْتُ لَوْ كَانَ أَحَدٌ قَالَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ قَبْلَهُ لَقُلْتُ رَجُلٌ يَأْتَسِي بِقَوْلٍ قِيلَ قَبْلَهُ وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ كَانَ مِنْ آبَائِهِ مِنْ مَلِكٍ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لَا قُلْتُ فَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ آبَائِهِ مِنْ مَلِكٍ قُلْتُ رَجُلٌ يَطْلُبُ مُلْكَ أَبِيهِ وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ كُنْتُمْ تَتَّهِمُونَهُ بِالْكَذِبِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقُولَ مَا قَالَ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لَا فَقَدْ أَعْرِفُ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَذَرَ الْكَذِبَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكْذِبَ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَسَأَلْتُكَ أَشْرَافُ النَّاسِ اتَّبَعُوهُ أَمْ ضُعَفَاؤُهُمْ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّ ضُعَفَاءَهُمْ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهُمْ أَتْبَاعُ الرُّسُلِ وَسَأَلْتُكَ أَيَزِيدُونَ أَمْ يَنْقُصُونَ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّهُمْ يَزِيدُونَ وَكَذَلِكَ أَمْرُ الْإِيمَانِ حَتَّى يَتِمَّ وَسَأَلْتُكَ أَيَرْتَدُّ أَحَدٌ سَخْطَةً لِدِينِهِ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ فِيهِ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لَا وَكَذَلِكَ الْإِيمَانُ حِينَ تُخَالِطُ بَشَاشَتُهُ الْقُلُوبَ وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ يَغْدِرُ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لَا وَكَذَلِكَ الرُّسُلُ لَا تَغْدِرُ وَسَأَلْتُكَ بِمَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّهُ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَيَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْ عِبَادَةِ الْأَوْثَانِ وَيَأْمُرُكُمْ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالصِّدْقِ وَالْعَفَافِ فَإِنْ كَانَ مَا تَقُولُ حَقًّا فَسَيَمْلِكُ مَوْضِعَ قَدَمَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ وَقَدْ كُنْتُ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ خَارِجٌ لَمْ أَكُنْ أَظُنُّ أَنَّهُ مِنْكُمْ فَلَوْ أَنِّي أَعْلَمُ أَنِّي أَخْلُصُ إِلَيْهِ لَتَجَشَّمْتُ لِقَاءَهُ وَلَوْ كُنْتُ عِنْدَهُ لَغَسَلْتُ عَنْ قَدَمِهِ ثُمَّ دَعَا بِكِتَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ بِهِ دِحْيَةُ إِلَى عَظِيمِ بُصْرَى فَدَفَعَهُ إِلَى هِرَقْلَ فَقَرَأَهُ فَإِذَا فِيهِ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى هِرَقْلَ عَظِيمِ الرُّومِ سَلَامٌ عَلَى مَنْ اتَّبَعَ الْهُدَى أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنِّي أَدْعُوكَ بِدِعَايَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ أَسْلِمْ تَسْلَمْ يُؤْتِكَ اللَّهُ أَجْرَكَ مَرَّتَيْنِ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْكَ إِثْمَ الْأَرِيسِيِّينَ وَ

{ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَنْ لَا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ }

قَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ فَلَمَّا قَالَ مَا قَالَ وَفَرَغَ مِنْ قِرَاءَةِ الْكِتَابِ كَثُرَ عِنْدَهُ الصَّخَبُ وَارْتَفَعَتْ الْأَصْوَاتُ وَأُخْرِجْنَا فَقُلْتُ لِأَصْحَابِي حِينَ أُخْرِجْنَا لَقَدْ أَمِرَ أَمْرُ ابْنِ أَبِي كَبْشَةَ إِنَّهُ يَخَافُهُ مَلِكُ بَنِي الْأَصْفَرِ فَمَا زِلْتُ مُوقِنًا أَنَّهُ سَيَظْهَرُ حَتَّى أَدْخَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيَّ الْإِسْلَامَ وَكَانَ ابْنُ النَّاظُورِ صَاحِبُ إِيلِيَاءَ وَهِرَقْلَ سُقُفًّا عَلَى نَصَارَى الشَّأْمِ يُحَدِّثُ أَنَّ هِرَقْلَ حِينَ قَدِمَ إِيلِيَاءَ أَصْبَحَ يَوْمًا خَبِيثَ النَّفْسِ فَقَالَ بَعْضُ بَطَارِقَتِهِ قَدْ اسْتَنْكَرْنَا هَيْئَتَكَ قَالَ ابْنُ النَّاظُورِ وَكَانَ هِرَقْلُ حَزَّاءً يَنْظُرُ فِي النُّجُومِ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ حِينَ سَأَلُوهُ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ اللَّيْلَةَ حِينَ نَظَرْتُ فِي النُّجُومِ مَلِكَ الْخِتَانِ قَدْ ظَهَرَ فَمَنْ يَخْتَتِنُ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ قَالُوا لَيْسَ يَخْتَتِنُ إِلَّا الْيَهُودُ فَلَا يُهِمَّنَّكَ شَأْنُهُمْ وَاكْتُبْ إِلَى مَدَايِنِ مُلْكِكَ فَيَقْتُلُوا مَنْ فِيهِمْ مِنْ الْيَهُودِ فَبَيْنَمَا هُمْ عَلَى أَمْرِهِمْ أُتِيَ هِرَقْلُ بِرَجُلٍ أَرْسَلَ بِهِ مَلِكُ غَسَّانَ يُخْبِرُ عَنْ خَبَرِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَمَّا اسْتَخْبَرَهُ هِرَقْلُ قَالَ اذْهَبُوا فَانْظُرُوا أَمُخْتَتِنٌ هُوَ أَمْ لَا فَنَظَرُوا إِلَيْهِ فَحَدَّثُوهُ أَنَّهُ مُخْتَتِنٌ وَسَأَلَهُ عَنْ الْعَرَبِ فَقَالَ هُمْ يَخْتَتِنُونَ فَقَالَ هِرَقْلُ هَذَا مُلْكُ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ قَدْ ظَهَرَ ثُمَّ كَتَبَ هِرَقْلُ إِلَى صَاحِبٍ لَهُ بِرُومِيَةَ وَكَانَ نَظِيرَهُ فِي الْعِلْمِ وَسَارَ هِرَقْلُ إِلَى حِمْصَ فَلَمْ يَرِمْ حِمْصَ حَتَّى أَتَاهُ كِتَابٌ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ يُوَافِقُ رَأْيَ هِرَقْلَ عَلَى خُرُوجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ فَأَذِنَ هِرَقْلُ لِعُظَمَاءِ الرُّومِ فِي دَسْكَرَةٍ لَهُ بِحِمْصَ ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِأَبْوَابِهَا فَغُلِّقَتْ ثُمَّ اطَّلَعَ فَقَالَ يَا مَعْشَرَ الرُّومِ هَلْ لَكُمْ فِي الْفَلَاحِ وَالرُّشْدِ وَأَنْ يَثْبُتَ مُلْكُكُمْ فَتُبَايِعُوا هَذَا النَّبِيَّ فَحَاصُوا حَيْصَةَ حُمُرِ الْوَحْشِ إِلَى الْأَبْوَابِ فَوَجَدُوهَا قَدْ غُلِّقَتْ فَلَمَّا رَأَى هِرَقْلُ نَفْرَتَهُمْ وَأَيِسَ مِنْ الْإِيمَانِ قَالَ رُدُّوهُمْ عَلَيَّ وَقَالَ إِنِّي قُلْتُ مَقَالَتِي آنِفًا أَخْتَبِرُ بِهَا شِدَّتَكُمْ عَلَى دِينِكُمْ فَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ فَسَجَدُوا لَهُ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ فَكَانَ ذَلِكَ آخِرَ شَأْنِ هِرَقْلَ

رَوَاهُ صَالِحُ بْنُ كَيْسَانَ وَيُونُسُ وَمَعْمَرٌ عَنْ الزُّهْرِيِّ

رواه البخاري ومسلم وغيرهما

Imam al-Bukhari: Volume 1, Book 1, Number 6:

    Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas: Abu Sufyan bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraish. They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan), at the time when Allah’s Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels. So Abu Sufyan and his companions went to Heraclius at Ilya (Jerusalem). Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. He called for his translator who, translating Heraclius’s question said to them, “Who amongst you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?” Abu Sufyan replied, “I am the nearest relative to him (amongst the group).”Heraclius said, “Bring him (Abu Sufyan) close to me and make his companions stand behind him.” Abu Sufyan added, Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding that man (The Prophet) and that if I told a lie they (my companions) should contradict me.” Abu Sufyan added, “By Allah! Had I not been afraid of my companions labeling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet. The first question he asked me about him was:

    ‘What is his family status amongst you?’

    I replied, ‘He belongs to a good (noble) family amongst us.’

    Heraclius further asked, ‘Has anybody amongst you ever claimed the same (i.e. to be a Prophet) before him?’

    I replied, ‘No.’

    He said, ‘Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?’

    I replied, ‘No.’

    Heraclius asked, ‘Do the nobles or the poor follow him?’

    I replied, ‘It is the poor who follow him.’

    He said, ‘Are his followers increasing decreasing (day by day)?’

    I replied, ‘They are increasing.’

    He then asked, ‘Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?’

    I replied, ‘No.’

    Heraclius said, ‘Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim (to be a Prophet)?’

    I replied, ‘No. ‘

    Heraclius said, ‘Does he break his promises?’

    I replied, ‘No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.’ I could not find opportunity to say anything against him except that.

    Heraclius asked, ‘Have you ever had a war with him?’

    I replied, ‘Yes.’

    Then he said, ‘What was the outcome of the battles?’

    I replied, ‘Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.’

    Heraclius said, ‘What does he order you to do?’

    I said, ‘He tells us to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our Kith and kin.’

    Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following, I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you claimed such a thing, your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man’s statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom.

    I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allah. I, then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. And in fact all the Apostle have been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and in fact this is (the sign of) true faith, when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the Apostles never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship any thing along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.’ Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah’s Apostle

    which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows: “In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad the slave of Allah and His Apostle to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him, who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your Arisiyin (peasants). (And I recite to you Allah’s Statement:)

    ‘O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allah).’ (3:64).

    Abu Sufyan then added, “When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we were turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him. Then I started to become sure that he (the Prophet) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced Islam (i.e. Allah guided me to it).”

    The sub narrator adds, “Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of llya’ (Jerusalem) and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Sham. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting ilya’ (Jerusalem), he got up in the morning with a sad mood. Some of his priests asked him why he was in that mood? Heraclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied, ‘At night when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared (become the conqueror). Who are they who practice circumcision?’ The people replied, ‘Except the Jews nobody practices circumcision, so you should not be afraid of them (Jews).

    ‘Just Issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.’

    While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allah’s Apostle to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, he (Heraclius) ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. The people, after seeing him, told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, ‘Arabs also practice circumcision.’

    (After hearing that) Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the ‘Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Heraclius then left for Homs. (a town in Syrian and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend who agreed with him in his opinion about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. On that Heraclius invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble in his palace at Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the doors of his palace be closed. Then he came out and said, ‘O Byzantines! If success is your desire and if you seek right guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet (i.e. embrace Islam).’

    (On hearing the views of Heraclius) the people ran towards the gates of the palace like onagers but found the doors closed. Heraclius realized their hatred towards Islam and when he lost the hope of their embracing Islam, he ordered that they should be brought back in audience.

    (When they returned) he said, ‘What already said was just to test the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.’ The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius’s story (in connection with his faith).

    [al-Munad al-Jame as-Sahih, of ” Sahih Bukhari” Hadeeth No. 6]

    [Translator Dr. Muhsin Khan]

Imam Muslim: Sahih Muslim

Chapter 25 : THE HOLY PROPHET’S (MAY PEACE BE UPON HIM) LETTER TO HIRAQL (CEASAR) INVITING HIM TO ISLAM


Book 19, Number 4380:

    It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas who learnt the tradition personally from Abu Safyan. The latter said: I went out (on a mercantile venture) during the period (of truce) between me and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). While I was in Syria, the letter of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was handed over to Hiraql (Ceasar), the Emperor of Rome (who was on a visit to Jerusalem at that time). The letter was brought by Dihya Kalbi who delivered it to the governor of Basrah the governor passed it on to Hiraql, (On receiving the letter), he said: Is there anyone from the people of this man who thinks that he is a prophet. People said: Yes. So, I was called along with a few others from the Quraish. We were admitted to Hiraql and he seated usbefore him. He asked: Which of you has closer kinship with the man who thinks that he is a prophet ? Abu Sufyan said: I. So they seated me in front of him and stated my companions behind me. Then, he called his interpreter and said to him: Tell them that I am going to ask this fellow (i.e. Abu Sufyan) about the man who thinks that he is a prophet. It he tells me a lie, then refute him. Abu Sufyan told (the narrator): By God, if there was not the fear that falsehood would be imputed to me I would have lied. (Then) Hiraqi said to his interpreter: Inquire from him about his ancestry, I said: He is of good ancestry among us. He asked: Has there been a king among his ancestors? I said: No. He asked: Did you accuse him of falsehood before he proclaimed his prophethood ? I said: No. He asked: Who are his follower people of high status or low status? I said: (They are) of low status. He asked: Are they increasing in number or decreasing? I said. No. they are rather increasing. He asked: Does anyone give up his religion, being dissatisfied with it, after having embraced it? I said: No. He asked: Have you been at war with him? I said: Yes. He asked: How did you fare in that war? I said: The war between us and him has been wavering like a bucket, up at one turn and down at the other (i.e. the victory has been shared between us and him by turns). Sometimes he suffered loss at our hands and sometimes we suffered loss at his (hand). He asked: Has he (ever) violated his covenant? I said: No. but we have recently concluded a peace treaty with him for a petiod and we do not know what he is going to do about it. (Abu Sufyin said on oath that he could not interpolate in this dialogue anything from himself more than these words ) He asked: Did anyone make the proclamation (Of prophethood) before him? I said: No. He (now) said to his interpreter: Tell him, I asked him about his ancestry and he had replied that he had the best ancestry. This is the case with Prophets; they are the descendants of the noblest among their people (Addressing Abu Sufyan), he continued: I asked you if there had been a king among his ancestors. You said that there had been none. If there had been a king among his ancestors, I would have said that he was a man demanding his ancestral kingdom. I asked you about his followers whether they were people of high or low status, and you said that they were of rather low status. Such are the followers of the Prophets. I asked you whether you used to accuse him of falsehood before he proclaimed his prophethood, and you said that you did not. So I have understood that when he did not allow himself to tell a lie about the poeple, he would never go to the length of forging a falsehood about Allah. I asked you whether anyone renounced his religion being dissatisfied with it after he had embraced it, and you replied in the negative. Faith is like this when it enters the depth of the heart (it perpetuates them). I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You said they were increasing. Faith is like this until it reaches its consummation. I asked you whether you had been at war with him, and you replied that you had been and that the victory between you and him had been shared by turns, sometimes he suffering loss at your hand and sometimes you suffering lost at his. This is how the Prophets are tried before the final victory its theirs. I asked you whether he (ever) violated his covenant, and you said that he did not. This is how the Prophets behave. They never violate (their covenants). I asked you whether anyone before him had proclaimed the same thing, and you replied in the negative. I said: If anyone had made the same proclamation before, I would have thought that he was a man following what had been proclaimed before. (Then) he asked: What does he enjoin upon you? I said: He exhorts us to offer Salat, to pay Zakat, to show due regard to kinship and to practise chastity. He said: It what you have told about him is true, he is certainly a Prophet. I knew that he was to appear but I did not think that he would be from among you. If I knew that I would be able to reach him. I would love to meet him; and it I had been with him. I would have washed his feet (out of reverence). His dominion would certainly extend to this place which is under my feet. Then he called for the letter of the Messenger of Allah (may pface be upon him) and read it. The letter ran as follows: “In the name of Allah, Most Gracious and Most Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Hiraql, the Emperor of the Romans. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance. After this, I extend to you the invitation to accept Islam. Embrace Islam and you will be safe. Accept Islam, God will give you double the reward. And if you turn away, upon you will be the sin of your subjects. “O People of the Book, come to the word that is common between us that we should worship none other than Allah, should not ascribe any partner to Him and some of us should not take their fellows as Lords other than Allah. If they turn away, you should say that we testify to our being Muslims [iii. 64].”
    When he hid finished the reading of the letter, noise and confused clamour was raise around him, and he ordered us to leave. Accordingly, we left. (Addressing my companions) while we were coming out (of the place). I said: Ibn Abu Kabsha (referring sarcastically to the Holy Prophet) has come to wield a great power. Lo! (even) the king of the Romans is afraid of him. I continued to believe that the authority of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would triumph until God imbued me with (the spirit of) Islam.

Book 19, Number 4381:

    This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Shihab with the same chain of transmitters but with the addition : “When Allah inflicted defeat on the armies of Persia, Caesar moved from Hims to Aelia (Bait al-Maqdis) for thanking Allah as He granted him victory.” In this hadith these words occur: “From Muhammad, servant of Allah and His Messenger,” and said: “The sin of your followers,” and also said the words: “to the call of Islam”.
    [from Sahih Muslim]
    [Sahih Muslim : Translator; Abdul Hamid Siddiqui]

    Some Notes and Observations:

    Muhammad-Letter-To-Heraclius
    Above:  The letter of the Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,

    to the emperor of the Roman during his time, Heraclius

    ()

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