Tauheed is of two kinds التوحيد نوعان

Tauheed is of two kinds <> التوحيد نوعان

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والتوحيد نوعان : توحيد في المعرفة والإثبات . وهو توحيد الربوبية والأسماء والصفات . وتوحيد في الطلب والقصد ، وهو توحيد الإلهية والعبادة .

Tauheed is of two kinds: 1) Tauheed of Knowledge and Confirmation, which is the Tauheed pertaining to Allah’s Lordship and Sovereignty (over all creation) and His blessed Names and Attributes of perfection; and 2) Tauheed of Pursuit and Intention, which is the Tauheed pertaining to Allah’s Divinity and the worship of Allah.

قال العلامة ابن القيم -رحمه الله- : وأما التوحيد الذي دعت إليه الرسل ونزلت به الكتب فهو نوعان : توحيد في المعرفة والإثبات ، وتوحيد في الطلب والقصد .

فالأول هو : إثبات حقيقة ذات الرب تعالى وصفاته وأفعاله وأسمائه وتكلمه بكتبه وتكليمه لمن شاء من عباده ، وإثبات عموم قضائه وقدره وحكمته ، وقد أفصح القرآن عن هذا النوع جد الإفصاح ، كما في أول سورة الحديد ، وسورة طه ، وآخر الحشر ، وأول تنزيل السجدة ، وأول آل عمران ، وسورة الإخلاص بكمالها ، وغير ذلك .

النوع الثاني : ما تضمنته سورة { قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ } ( الكافرون -1 ) وقوله تعالى : { قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ } ( آل عمران – 64 ) وأول سورة تنزيل الكتاب وآخرها . وأول سورة المؤمن ، ووسطها ، وآخرها . وأول سورة الأعراف ، وآخرها . وجملة سورة الأنعام ، وغالب سور القرآن . بل كل سورة في القرآن فهي متضمنة لنوعي التوحيد ، شاهدة به داعية إليه .

فإن القرآن إما خبر عن الله وأسمائه وصفاته وأفعاله وأقواله ، فهو التوحيد العلمي الخبري وإما دعوة إلى عبادته وحده لا شريك له وخلع ما يعبد من دونه ، فهو التوحيد الإرادي الطلبي . وإما أمر ونهي ، وإلزام بطاعته وأمره ونهيه ، فهو حقوق التوحيد ومكملاته وإما خبر عن إكرام أهل التوحيد وما فعل بهم في الدنيا وما يكرمهم به في الآخرة ، فهو جزاء توحيده ، وإما خبر عن أهل الشرك وما فعل بهم في الدنيا من النكال وما يحل بهم في العقبى من العذاب . فهو جزاء من خرج عن التوحيد . فالقرآن كله في التوحيد ، وحقوقه وجزائه ، وفي شأن الشرك وأهله وجزائهم . انتهى .

Al-Allaamah Ibn-al-Qayyim states: “The Tauheed to which the prophets have invited mankind and which is in Allah’s revealed Books is of two kinds: Tauheed of Knowledge and Confirmation; and Tauheed of Pursuit and Intention. The first kind of Tauheed means confirming and attesting to the truth of Allah, the Lord, most Exalted in the reality of His Being, His Attributes of Perfection, His Blessed Acts, His Holy Names, His Words in the revealed Books, and His Speech to whom He Wills of His creatures. Moreover it means confirming the comprehensiveness of His Divine Decree, Will and Wisdom. The Qur’an has clarified this kind of Tauheed in many places like the beginning of Surah al-Hadeed, Surah Ta-Ha, the end of Surah al-Hashr, the beginning of Surah as-Sajdah and Surah Aal-i-Imraan, all of Surah al-Ikhlaas, and in many other places.

The second kind of Tauheed is mentioned in Surah al-Kafiroon, in Allah’s saying: [Say (O’ Muhammad) O people of the Scripture, come to a word that is just between us and you: that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with His, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah, then if they turn away say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims’] (Aal-i-‘Imraan 3:65), in the beginning and end of Surah az-Zumar, in the beginning, middle and end of Surah al-Mumin, in the beginning and end of Surah al-A’araaf, throughout Surah al-An’aam, and indeed throughout the entire Qur’an. It can even be said that each and every Surah of the Qur’an contains, testifies, and calls to both kinds of tauheed.

This can be explained by the fact that the (verses of the) Qur’an (can be classified under one) of the following:

1) Statement about Allah and His Names, Attributes, Acts and Words, such being the tauheed of knowledge;

2) Invitation to worship Allah alone and not to associate any partners with Him and to repudiate everything which is worshipped besides Allah, such being the tauheed of pursuit and intention;

3) Obligation and prohibition, the commitment to obey Allah’s orders and laws, such being the rights of tauheed and the fulfillment of its responsibilities;

4) Statement about Allah’s generous treatment to those who fulfill the rights of tauheed in this life and in the Hereafter, such being the reward of tauheed;

5) Statement about those who worship others besides Allah and the grievous punishment Allah afflicts on them in this life and in the Hereafter, such being the just re-compensation for those who transgress against the rights of tauheed.

Thus the Qur’an in its entirety is about Tauheed, its rights and rewards, and about shirk, those who perpetuate the crime of shirk, and its punishment.”

قال شيخ الإسلام : التوحيد الذي جاءت به الرسل إنما يتضمن إثبات الإلهية لله وحده بأن يشهد أن لا إله إلا الله : لا يعبد إلا إياه ، ولا يتوكل إلا عليه ، ولا يوالي إلا له ، ولا يعادي إلا فيه ، ولا يعمل إلا لأجله . وذلك يتضمن إثبات ما أثبته لنفسه من الأسماء والصفات . قال تعالى : { وَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ } ( البقرة – 163 ) قال تعالى : { وَقَالَ اللَّهُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوا إِلَهَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ } ( النحل -51 ) وقال تعالى : { وَمَنْ يَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ لَا بُرْهَانَ لَهُ بِهِ فَإِنَّمَا حِسَابُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الْكَافِرُونَ } ( المؤمنون – 117 ) وقال تعالى : { وَاسْأَلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنَا أَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ دُونِ الرَّحْمَنِ آلِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ } ( الزخرف – 45 ) وأخبر عن كل نبي من الأنبياء أنهم دعوا الناس إلى عبادة الله وحده لا شريك له . وقال : { قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّى تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ } . . . ( الممتحنة – 4 ) وقال عن المشركين : ، { إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ }{ وَيَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَتَارِكُو آلِهَتِنَا لِشَاعِرٍ مَجْنُونٍ } ( الصافات -35 – 36 ) وهذا في القرآن كثير .

وليس المراد بالتوحيد : مجرد توحيد الربوبية ، وهو اعتقاد أن الله وحده خلق العالم ، كما يظن ذلك من يظنه من أهل الكلام والتصوف . ويظن هؤلاء أنهم إذا أثبتوا ذلك بالدليل فقد أثبتوا غاية التوحيد . وأنهم إذا شهدوا هذا وفنوا فيه فقد فنوا في غاية التوحيد . فإن الرجل لو أقر بما يستحقه الرب تعالى من الصفات ، ونزهه عن كل ما ينزه عنه ، وأقر بأنه وحده خالق كل شيء ، لم يكن موحدا حتى يشهد بأن لا إله إلا الله وحده ، فيقر بأن الله وحده هو الإله المستحق للعبادة : ويلتزم بعبادة الله وحده لا شريك له . و ” الإله ” هو المألوه المعبود الذي يستحق العبادة . وليس هو الإله بمعنى القادر على الاختراع . فإذا فسر المفسر ” الإله ” بمعنى القادر على الاختراع ، واعتقد أن هذا المعنى هو أخص وصف الإله ، وجعل إثبات هذا هو الغاية في التوحيد – كما يفعل ذلك من يفعله من متكلمة الصفاتية ، وهو الذي يقولونه عن أبي الحسن وأتباعه – لم يعرفوا حقيقة التوحيد الذي بعث الله به رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم . فإن مشركي العرب كانوا مقرين بأن الله وحده خالق كل شيء . وكانوا مع هذا مشركين . قال تعالى : { وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللَّهِ إِلَّا وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ } ( يوسف -106 ) قالت طائفة من السلف ” تسألهم : من خلق السماوات والأرض ؟ فيقولون : الله . وهم مع هذا يعبدون غيره ” قال تعالى : { قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ }{ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ }{ قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ }{ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ }{ قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلَا يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ }{ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ } ( المؤمنون ـ 84 – 89 ) فليس كل من أقر بأن الله تعالى رب كل شيء وخالقه يكون عابدا له دون ما سواه ، داعيا له دون ما سواه راجيا له خائفا منه دون ما سواه ، يوالي فيه ويعادي فيه ، ويطيع رسله ويأمر بما أمر به وينهى عما نهى عنه . وعامة المشركين أقروا بأن الله خالق كل شيء . وأثبتوا الشفعاء الذين يشركونهم به وجعلوا له أندادا . قال تعالى : { أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُفَعَاءَ قُلْ أَوَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يَمْلِكُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَعْقِلُونَ }{ قُلْ لِلَّهِ الشَّفَاعَةُ جَمِيعًا لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ } . . . ( الزمر ـ 43 – 44 ) وقال تعالى : { وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَؤُلَاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ قُلْ أَتُنَبِّئُونَ اللَّهَ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ } ( يونس ـ 18 ) وقال تعالى : { وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَى كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُمْ مَا خَوَّلْنَاكُمْ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِكُمْ وَمَا نَرَى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَاءُ لَقَدْ تَقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْكُمْ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ } ( الأنعام ـ 94 ) وقال تعالى : { وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ } . . . ( البقرة ـ 165 ) ولهذا كان من أتباع هؤلاء من يسجد للشمس والقمر والكواكب ويدعوها ، ويصوم وينسك لها ويتقرب إليها . ثم يقول : إن هذا ليس بشرك . إنما الشرك إذا اعتقدت أنها المدبرة لي . فإذا جعلتها سببا وواسطة لم أكن مشركا . ومن المعلوم بالاضطرار من دين الإسلام أن هذا شرك.

Sheikh-al-Islam (Ibn Taimiyyah) says: “The Tauheed which the prophets of Allah have brought (to mankind) includes confirming that Allah alone is the God and that there is no god except Allah, worshipping none but Him alone, trusting on none except Allah, contracting friends and enemies only for Allah’s sake (and according to the example and guidance of the Prophet), and performing (all) religious deeds for Allah only (and in His reverence). This tauheed also includes confirming that which Allah has clarified (in His revelation) about Himself and His Names and Attributes.

Allah most Exalted said: [And your God is one God, there is no other god but He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful] (al-Baqarah 2:163).

And He said: [Allah has said take not for worship two gods, for He is just one God. Then fear Me (and Me alone)] (an-Nahl 17:51).

And Allah said: [And whoever invokes (or worships) besides Allah any other god of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely the disbelievers will not be successful](al-Mu’minoon 123:17).

And Allah said: [And ask those of Our Messengers whom We have sent before you: “Did we appoint any deities other than Allah most Gracious to be worshipped”.](al-Zukhruf 43:45). Allah most exalted has informed (us) that each messenger called his people to worship only Allah, who is without peer or partner. Allah said: [There is for you an excellent example (to follow) in Abraham and those with him, when they said to their people: “We are clear of you and of whatever you worship besides Allah; we have rejected you, and there has arisen between us and you hostility and hatred forever – until you believe in Allah and Him alone”.](al-Mumtahinah 60:4).

And Allah said about those who associate other gods with Him: [For they, when it was said to them that there is no god except Allah, would puff themselves up with pride and say: “What! Shall we abandon our gods for the sake of a mad poet?”](as-Saaffaat 37:30-36). Such verses (explaining this tauheed) are many in the Qur’an.

Thus Tauheed is not merely the Tauheed of Allah’s Lordship and Sovereignty, believing that He alone created the creation, as many of the pedantic theologians and Sufis have presumed, believing that if they demonstrate this by analytical reasoning or if they testify to this and obliterate their individual selves (Fana`a) [1] in a hypocritical kind of Tauheed, then they have fulfilled the utmost purpose (of the belief in Tauheed). Even if someone believed in all the perfect Attributes of Allah which are His due right, exonerated Allah from all imperfection as He should be, and acknowledged that Allah alone is the Creator of the universe, one would not be a true believer in Tauheed unless he testifies that there is no god except Allah, acknowledges that none has the right to be worshipped except Him alone, and then commits himself in deed and practice to only worship Allah and associates no partners whatsoever with Him. The word god (Ilaah) [2] means the one who is deemed a deity and worthy of worship, and not just the one able to invent, originate and create. If someone understands “Ilaah” to merely be the one able to invent and originate and create, and believes that this meaning is the most exclusive attribute of Allah whereby if he testifies to this point, he has attained the utmost purpose of Tauheed, (just like) as the pedantic theologians do, and as is related about Abu Hasan al-Ash’ari (d. 324 H) and his followers – then such a person has in fact not comprehended the reality of the Tauheed which the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad) peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, has brought (to teach mankind). That is because the Arab Mushrikeen [3] at the time of the Prophet used to acknowledge that Allah alone is the Creator, and yet they were Mushrikeen. Allah said: [And most of them believe not in Allah except that they associate partners with Him] (Yusuf 12:106). Some of the predecessors have mentioned: “If you ask them: who created the heavens and the earth? They will reply: ‘Allah’. Yet, even so, they worship others besides Allah.” Allah said: [Say: To whom belong the earth and all being therein? Say, do you know? O They will say, “to Allah”. Say: will you not receive admonition? O Say: who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne? O They will say, “Allah”. Say: will you not then fear Allah? O Say: In whose Hand is the Sovereignty of all things? Who protects (all) while against Whom there is no protector; if you know? O They will say, “(All that belongs) to Allah”. Say: Then how are you deluded (from the truth).](al-Muminoon 23:84-89). Thus not every one who acknowledges that Allah is the Supreme Lord and Creator worships Allah alone: supplicating, fearing and hoping only for Allah; contracting friends and enemies only for His sake; obeying His Messengers; and ordering (what is right) and prohibiting (what is wrong) according to His Law. Even though the majority of the mushrikeen acknowledged that Allah is the Creator of everything, nevertheless, they placed intercessors between themselves and Allah and associated peers and partners with Him. Allah said: [What! So they take for intercessor others besides Allah? Say: Even if they have no power whatever and no intelligence! O Say: To Allah belongs exclusively (the right to grant) intercession. His is the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, then to Him shall you be brought back.] (az-Zumar 39:43-44). And Allah said: [And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not nor profit them, and they say, “These are our intercessors with Allah”. Say: Do you inform Allah of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth? Glorified and Exalted be He alone all that which they associate as partners with Him!](Yunus 10:18).

And Allah said: [And behold! You have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all (the favors) which We had bestowed on you. We don’t see with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be partners with Allah. So now all relations between you (and us) have been cut off, and all that which you used to claim has left you in a lurch!](al-An’aam 6:94).

And Allah said: [And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah.](al-Baqarah 2:165).

Thus, because they have this mistaken belief, some of them can even prostate, supplicate, fast, and perform rituals to the sun, moon and other planets… and yet claim that this is not associating partners with Allah in worship (shirk). Moreover they claim that shirk is only believing that such (heavenly bodies) have control over you, and have independent causes and effect. It is known by necessity (as rudimentary undeniable fact) in Islam that such a practice is Shirk.

|<>|    From Fath al-Majeed,

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[1] Fana`a is a term used by the some Sufis with various meanings. It may mean to lose consciousness of the self while being absorbed in the worship of Allah. For others, who have strayed from correct Islamic monotheistic beliefs and have come to believe in various forms of pantheism or monism, the unity of all being, the term Fana`a may mean the total obliteration and extinction of the individual by union with the unity of all being thought spiritual practices, as they claim. It is inexplicable and therefore in some ways analogous to nirvana in Buddhism. Neither these kind of Sufis, nor Buddhists, etc, admit the absolute independent existence of Allah, The Perfect Creator, Sustainer, and Lord of all beings, who is due all sincere worship, but instead talk incessantly about “unity” according to their concepts.

[2] Ilaah, means that which is worshipped rightfully or unrightfully: hence it is translated according to the context as “God” or “god” accordingly. “Allah” is the proper name of God in the Arabic language; hence LA ILLAH ILLALLAH means there is no god except the God (Allah). Arab Christians say that Jesus is the son of Allah, which shows that the word for them is analogous to God the Father in their trinity, a blasphemy for Muslims and Jews.

[3] Mushrikeen are those that practice or fall into “Shirk”, the belief in or worship of lords or gods other than Allah. Shirk is therefore the polar opposite and the antithesis of Tauheed. All Mushrikeen who commit greater Shirk are disbelievers (Kaafareen, Kufaar pl. of kaafir) outside the fold of Islam, even if they claim to be Muslims. This book will detail the forms of shirk which negate Tauheed totally and demolish it necessitating disbelief (Kufr) and are thus called the greater Shirk. Forms of shirk which are incompatible to Tauheed and damage sincere faith and practice but do not which negate Tauheed totally and demolish it, are called lesser Shirk.

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