eBook – The Foremost Obligatory Duties

The Foremost Obligatory Duties


Foremost Obligatory Duties about which every Muslim must have Knowledge

The Foremost Obligatory Duties about which every Muslim must have Knowledge

((الواجبات المتحتمات المعرفة))

<((للإمام محمد بن عبد الوهاب))>

Taken from the words of

Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab ibn Sulaiman at-Tameemi, [May Allah have Mercy on them all]

Translated with forward and notes by he who hopes for his Lord’s Mercy:

Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle

First edition (1420H -2000CE)

Second edition (1423/-2002)

Third edition (-2010)

A production of http://tauheed.com

Contents of Foremost Obligatory Duties and Summary

¨      Introduction

¨      The Text and Translation

¨      Three Fundamental Principles:

-1- The knowledge of his Rabb (Lord);

-2- The knowledge of his Deen (Religion);

-3- The knowledge of his Nabi (Prophet).

¨      Two Basic Fundamentals of Religion:

-1- The command to worship Allah alone;

-2- The warning against shirk (idolatry and polytheism).

¨      The Conditions of (the Word) “LA ILAAHA ILL-A-LLAH:

1)      KNOWLEDGE (ilm) of its meaning, as opposed to ignorance (jahl).

2)       CERTAINTY (yaqeen) which is complete knowledge about it, as opposed to uncertainty (shakk).

3)       SINCERITY (ikhlas), as opposed to shirk (idolatry).

4)      TRUTHFULNESS (sidq), as opposed to dishonesty (kathb); truthfulness prevents and restrains hypocrisy (nifaaq).

5)      LOVE (mahabah or hubb) of this word (of testimony) and that which it indicates, and happiness about it and all to which it leads.

6)      COMPLIANCE (inqiyaad) to the obligations and rights of this word, which is performing obligatory deeds with sincerity to Allah and seeking His Pleasure.

7)      ACCEPTANCE (qabool), as opposed to rejection (radd).

¨      Demonstrative Proofs of these Conditions

¨      Nawaaqid al-Islam (Violations Invalidating Islam):

1.Shirk (Associating partners with Allah) …

2. Setting up wasaait (intermediaries) between oneself and Allah…

3. Anyone who does not consider the mushrikeen (idolaters and polytheists) to be disbelievers,

4.  Anyone who believes that any guidance other that the Prophet’s Guidance, peace be upon him, is more perfect than the Prophet’s…

5. Anyone who hates and detests any part of what the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, has declared to be lawful ….

6. Anyone who ridicules and makes fun of any aspect of the religion of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him…

7. The practice of as-sihr (sorcery and magic).

8. Supporting and aiding the mushrikeen (and idolaters polytheists) against the Muslims.

9. Anyone who believes that some people are permitted to be independent  from the Shariah (Law) of Muhammad, peace be upon him…

10. To avoid and turn completely away from the religion of Allah…

¨      Tauheed is of Three Categories

-1- Tauheed ar-Ruboobiyyah (the Tauheed of Lordship).

-2- Tauheed al-Uloohiyyah (the Tauheed of Allah’s Divinity and Godhead, of His exclusive right to be sincerely worshipped).

-3- Tauheed ath-Thaat wa al-Asmaa was-Sifaat  (the Tauheed of Allah’s exalted Being, and His Names and Attributes)

¨      The antithesis and opposite of Tauheed is Shirk, which is of three kinds;
-1- The major or greater shirk,
-2- The minor or lesser shirk,
-3- The hidden shirk

¨      Al-Kufr (Disbelief) is of Two Kinds

¨       The Greater Kufr

(1) Kufr at-taktheeb (disbelief by denial and rejection of truth).

(2) Kufr al-abaa wa-istakbaar (disbelief by arrogant refusal and pride).

(3) Kufr ash-shakk wa kufr aththan (disbelief by doubt and disbelief by suspicion and misgivings).

(4) Kufr al-’iraad (disbelief by avoidance and turning away).

(5) Kufr an-nefaaq (disbelief by hypocrisy

The lesser kufr: kufr an-ne’mah (partial denial and ingratitude of Allah’s blessings).

¨      An-Nefaaq (Hypocrisy) is of Two Kinds:

  1. Nefaaq ‘iteqaadi (Hypocrisy of belief).
  2. Nefaaq ‘amali (Hypocrisy of action).

¨      The meaning of Taaghoot and its Major Categories

-1- Satan…

-2- The unjust tyrannical ruler…

-3- Anyone who judges arbitrarily according to custom and legal -4- precepts other than Allah’s Just Law…

-5- Anyone who alleges knowledge of the unseen (without revelation from Allah)…

Anyone who allows himself to be worshipped and is pleased by such worship…

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام  على رسوله المصطفى الأمين وآله وصحبه ومن أتبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين وبعد

Introduction

The following creed of faith and moral imperatives central to Islam[1] has been taken and pieced together from some treatises and letters of Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab ibn Sulaiman At-Tameemi an-Najdi, the renowned reformer who was born in the 1115th year of the Prophet’s Hijra (Emigration), peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, [1705 Christian Era] and died in the month of Dhi Qi’da 1206 H.   Meant to be a concise and precise summary of those primary principles which every Muslim and Muslimah holds nearest and dearest, it is to be memorized after complete comprehension, and then put into everyday practice.  The power, vitality, and universality of the Islamic revitalization movement which Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab began and which remains in force today can be traced to the profound clarity and simplicity of the following principles, easily within the grasp of all, and to the fact that they were comprehended, memorized, and practiced in spirit and letter by his sincere followers. Volumes have been and can be written in explanation and further clarification.

Since a non-Muslim can only become and stay a Muslim by bearing witness to the testimony that “LAA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH MUHAMMAD-AR-RASOOLU-L-LAH,”(meaning, “there is no god except Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger”), it becomes his first and continual obligation to understand this testimony fully in all its meaning and significance. This testimony is the essence of Tauheed (Islamic monotheism).[2] Only by comprehension can he hope to fulfill those obligations by practice.  This booklet is hopefully a step in that direction, and a primer pointing towards more intensive study.

We ask Allah Most Gracious to accept our good deeds and be ever merciful and forgive our shortcomings and misdeeds.

كتبه الفقير الى مغفرة ربه: “أبو ســـــــلمان” ضياء الدين ابرلي

Arrangement by he who seeks the mercy of His Lord:

“Abu Salman” Deya ud-Deen Eberle

Email:

abusalman102@gmail.com

abusalman102@yahoo.com

The Text and Translation:

الأصول الثلاثة التي يجب على كل مسلم ومسلمة معرفتها وهي  معرفة العبد ربه ودينه ورنبيه محمداً
فإن قيل لك : من ربك ؟ فقل :
ربي الله الذي رباني وربى جميع العالمين بنعمته ، وهو معبودي ، ليس لي معبود سواه . وإذا قيل لك : ما دينك ؟ فقل : ديني الإسلام ، وهو الاستسلام لله بالتوحيد والانقياد وبالطاعة والبراء من الشرك وأهله . وإذا قيل لك : من نبيك ؟ فقل : محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب بن هاشم ، وهاشم من قريش ، وقريش من العرب ، والعرب من ذرية إسماعيل بن إبراهيم عليهما وعلى نبينا أفضل الصلاة والتسليم

Three Fundamental Principles: [3]

The foremost principles about which every Muslim and Muslimah must have knowledge are three; the knowledge of his Rabb (Lord)[4] , the knowledge of his Deen (Religion)[5] , and the knowledge of his Nabi (Prophet). [6]

If you are asked: “Who is your Rabb (Lord)? Then reply: “Rabbi (my Lord) is Allah who has created, sustained, and nurtured me and all the creatures of the universe by His Grace and Bounty.  Allah is my only object of worship, and I have no other object of worship besides Him.

If you are asked: “What is your Deen (Religion)? Than reply: ” My Deen is Islam, which is submission to Allah in Tauheed  (sincerely making Allah the one and only God)[7], yielding to Him (and His Law) in Obedience, and absolving and disassociating oneself entirely from shirk  (idolatry)[8] and the people of shirk.

If you are asked: “Who is your Nabi (Prophet)?  Then reply: “Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Mutallib ibn Haashim.   Haashim was from Quraish and Quraish was an Arab.  Arabs are the descendents of Ismaaeel ibn Ibraaheem, Al-Khaleel, the chosen beloved one (of Allah), may the excellent blessings and peace be upon him and our Prophet.

أصل الدين وقاعدته أمران :  الأول : الأمر بعبادة الله وحده لا شريك له ، والتحريض على ذلك ، والموالاة فيه ، وتكفير من تركه . الثاني : الإنذار عن الشرك في عبادة الله ، والتغليظ في ذلك ، والمعاداة فيه ، وتكفير من فعله

Two Basic Fundamentals of Religion [9]

The fundamentals of religion and its basis are two:

1)      The command to worship Allah alone whom is without peer or partner.  This includes encouraging and promoting His exclusive worship, making His worship the sole basis for friendship and alliance, and declaring as Kaafir (disbeliever) all those who leave it.

2)      The warning against shirk (idolatry and associating others as partners with Him).  This includes being stern in condemnation of shirk, taking as enemies all those who commit shirk, and declaring them as kaafirs (disbelievers).[10]

شروط لا إله إلا الله
الأول : العلم بمعناها نفياً وإثباتاً.

الثاني : اليقين ، وهو :
كمال العلم بها ، المنافي للشك والريب .
الثالث : الإخلاص المنافي للكذب
.
الرابع : الصدق المنافي للكذب .

الخامس : المحبة لهذه الكلمة ، ولما دلت
عليه ، والسرور بذلك .
السادس : الانقياد لحقوقها ، وهي : الأعمال الواجبة ،
إخلاصاً لله ، وطلباً لمرضاته .
السابع : القبول المنافي للرد

The Conditions (shuroot) of (the Word)

“LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH”[11]

1)       KNOWLEDGE (ilm) of its meaning, as opposed to ignorance (jahl).

2)       CERTAINTY (yaqeen) which is complete knowledge about it, as opposed to uncertainty (shakk).

3)       SINCERITY (ikhlas), as opposed to shirk (idolatry).

4)      TRUTHFULNESS (sidq), as opposed to dishonesty (kathb); truthfulness prevents and restrains hypocrisy (nifaaq).

5)      LOVE (mahabah or hubb) of this word (of testimony) and that which it indicates, and happiness about it and all to which it leads.

6)      COMPLIANCE (inqiyaad) to the obligations and rights of this word, which is performing obligatory deeds with sincerity to Allah and seeking His Pleasure.

7)      ACCEPTANCE (qabool), as opposed to rejection (radd).

أدلة هذه الشروط من كتاب الله تعالى ومن سنة رسول الله :

دليل العلم : قوله تعالى : فأعلم أنه لا إله إلا الله وقوله : إلا من شهد بالحق وهم يعلمون أي بـ ” لا إله إلا الله “ وهم يعلمون بقلوبهم ما نطقوا به بألسنتهم .
ومن السنة : الحديث الثابت في الصحيح عن عثمان
قال : ( قال رسول الله : من مات وهو يعلم أنه لا إله إلا الله دخل الجنة ) .
ودليل اليقين : قوله تعالى :
إنما المؤمنون الذين ءامنوا بالله ورسوله ثم لم يرتابوا وجاهدوا بأموالهم وأنفسهم في سبيل الله أولئك هم الصادقون فاشترط في صدق إيمانهم بالله ورسوله كونهم لم يرتابوا -أي لم يشكوا – فأما المرتاب فهو من المنافقين .
ومن
السنة : الحديث الثابت في الصحيح عن أبي هريرة ، قال : ( قال رسول الله : أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأني رسول الله ، لا يلقى الله بهما عبد غير شاك فيهما إلا دخل الجنة ) وفي رواية : ( لا يلقى الله بهما عبد غير شاك فيحجب عن الجنة ) . وعن أبي هريرة أيضاً من حديث طويل : ( من لقيت من وراء هذا الحائط يشهد أن لا إله إلا الله مستيقناً بها من قلبه فبشره بالجنة ) .
ودليل الإخلاص : قوله تعالى :
ألا لله الدين الخالص وقوله سبحانه :

وما من أمروا إلا ليعبدوا الله مخلصين له الدين حنفاء .
ومن السنة : الحديث الثابت في الصحيح عن أبي هريرة
عن النبي : ( أسعد الناس بشفاعتي من قال لاإله إلا الله خالصاً من قلبه -أو من نفسه – ) وفي الصحيح عن عتبان بن مالك عن النبي : ( إن الله حرم على النار من قال لا إله إلا الله يبتغي بذلك وجه الله عز وجل ) وللنسائي في ” اليوم والليلة “من حديث رجلين من الصحابة عن النبي : ( من قال لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له ، له الملك ، وله الحمد ، وهو على كل شيء قدير ، مخلصاً بها من قلبه ، يصدق بها لسانه . . . إلا فتق الله السماء فتقاً ، حتى ينظر إلى قائلها من أهل الأرض ، وحق لعبد نظر إليه الله أن يعطيه سؤله ) .
ودليل الصدق : قوله تعالى :
الم * أحسب الناس أن يتركوا أن يقولوا ءامنا وهم لا يفتنون * ولقد فتنا الذين من قبلهم فليعلمن الله الذين صدقوا وليعلمن الكاذببين وقوله تعالى : ومن الناس من يقول ءامنا بالله واليوم الآخر وما هم بمؤمنين * يخادعون الله والذين ءامنوا وما يخدعون إلا أنفسهم وما يشعرون * في قلوبهم مرض فزادهم الله مرضاً ولهم عذاب أليم بما كانوا يكذبون .
ومن
السنة : ما ثبت في الصحيحين عن معاذ بن جبل عن النبي : ( ما من أحد يشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمداً رسول الله ، صادقاً من قلبه ، إلا حرمه الله على النار ) .
ودليل المحبة : قوله تعالى :
ومن الناس من يتخذ من دون الله أنداداً يحبونهم كحب الله والذين ءامنوا أشد حباً لله وقوله : يأيها الذين ءامنوا من يرتد منكم عن دينه فسوف يأتي الله بقوم يحبهم ويحبونه أذلة على المؤمنين أعزة على الكافرين يجاهدون في سبيل الله ولا يخافون لومة لائم .
ومن السنة : ما ثبت في الصحيح
عن أنس ، قال : ( قال رسول الله : ثلاث من كن فيه وجد حلاوة الإيمان : أن يكون الله ورسوله أحب إليه مما سواهما ، وأن يحب المرء لا يحبه إلا لله ، وأن يكره ان يعود في الكفر بعد إذ أنقذه الله منه كما يكره أن يقذف في النار).
ودليل الانقياد : ما دل عليه قوله تعالى :
وأنيبوا إلى ربكم وأسلموا من قبل أن ياتيكم العذاب ثم لا تنصرون وقوله : ومن أحسن ديناً ممن أسلم وجهه لله وهو محسن وقوله : ومن يسلم وجهه لله وهو محسن فقد استمسك بالعروة الوثقى أي بـ ” لا إله إلا الله ” ، وقوله تعالى : فلا وربك لا يؤمنون حتى يحكموك فيما شجر بينهم ثم لا يجدوا في انفسهم حرجاً مما قضيت ويسلموا تسليماً .
ومن السنة : قوله
: ( لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يكون هواه تبعاً لما جئت به ) وهذا هو تمام الانقياد وغايته .
ودليل القبول : قوله تعالى
: وكذلك ما أرسلنا من قبلك في قرية من نذير إلا قال مترفوها إنا وجدنا ءاباءنا على أمة وإنا على ءاثارهم مقتدون * قال أولوا جئتكم بأهدى مما وجدتم عليه ءاباءكم قالوا إنا بما أرسلتم به كافرون * فانتقمنا منهم فانظر كيف كان عاقبة المكذبين وقوله تعالى : إنهم كانوا إذا قيل لهم لا إله إلا الله يستكبرون * ويقولون أإنا لتاركوا ءالهتنا لشاعر مجنون .
ومن السنة : ما ثبت في الصحيح
عن ابي موسى رضي الله عنه عن النبي :  مثل ما بعثني الله به من الهدى والعلم كمثل الغيث الكثير أصاب أرضاً ، فكان منها نقية قبلت الماء فأنبتت الكلأ والعشب الكثير ، وكانت منها أجادب أمسكت الماء فنفع الله به الناس فشربوا وسقوا وزرعوا ، واصاب منها طائفة أخرى إنما هي قيعان لا تمسك الماء ولا تنبت كلأ ، فذلك مثل من فقه في دين الله ونفعه ما بعثني الله به فعلم وعلّم ، ومثل من لم يرفع بذلك راساً ولم يقبل هدى الله الذي أرسلت به

Demonstrative Proofs of these Conditions [12]

From Allah’s Book (the Quraan) and the Sunnah (Way and Tradition of the Prophet Peace and Blessings be upon him)

KNOWLEDGE (ilm)

The demonstrative proofs about the condition of knowledge (from the Quraan) is the saying of Allah: “So know that there is no God save Allah ” (Muhammad 19), and His saying: “Except those who bear witness to the Truth, and with full knowledge” [ az-Zukhraf (43:86], which means that they testify to the word of  LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH, “and with full knowledge” in their hearts about what they are saying with their tongues. And (the proof) from the Sunnah is the proven hadeeth in the Sahih[13] on the authority of Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, when he reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Whoever died knowing that LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH (there is no god except Allah) will enter paradise.”[14]

CERTAINTY (yaqeen)

The demonstrative proofs about certainty (from the Quraan) is the saying of Allah: “The (true) believers are only those who believe in Allah and His Messenger and thereafter do not doubt, and who strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah. Such are the truthful” (al-Hujurat 49:15).  Allah has made the fact that they do not doubt to be the condition proofing the truthfulness of their belief in Allah and His Messenger, which means that they did not have any misgivings or skepticism.  Those who have doubts and who display skepticism are the hypocrites.

And (the proof) from the Sunnah is the  proven hadeeth in the Sahih on the authority of Abi Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, when he reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “I bare testimony that there is no god except Allah and that I am His Messenger.  The slave (of Allah) who meets Allah with these two (testimonies), having no doubt about them, will enter paradise.[15] And in another narration (of this tradition) it is mentioned “No slave who meets Allah with these two (testimonies), having no doubt about them, will be prevented from (entering) paradise.”

And on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the long narration (he reported that the Prophet may Allah be pleased with him, said): “ Whoever you meet beyond this wall who testifies that LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH, with certainty in his heart, then give him the glad tidings of paradise.”[16]

SINCERITY (ikhlas)

The demonstrative proof about sincerity (from the Quraan) is the saying of Allah: “Worship Allah, making religion pure for him” (al-Zumar 2), and His saying: “And they are ordained not else than to serve Allah, keeping religion pure for Him… (al-Bayyinah 5).  [And in another translation: “And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion..”].And (the proof) from the Sunnah is the proven hadeeth in the Sahih on the authority of Abi Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, when he reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “The happiest person that will benefit from my intercession is the one who said LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH (there is no one worthy of worship except Allah) sincerely from his heart” [17].   And in the Hadeeth on the authority of Utbaan ibn Maalik , may Allah be pleased with him, who reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Allah has forbidden for the Hell-fire anyone who says, LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH  (There is no one worthy of worship except Allah) desiring the face [and pleasure] of Allah.” [18]

And An-Nasaa’e reports from a tradition on the authority of two companions that the Prophet, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “Whoever says ‘ LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH WAHDAHU LA SHAREEKA LAHU, LAHU-L-MULK WA LAHU-L-HAMD WA HUA ALA KULLI SHIAIN QADEER (There is no god except Allah alone who is without partner.  His is the Dominion, and His is the Praise, and He is capable of all things’ with sincerity from his heart and confirmation from his tongue, Allah opens up the sky cleaving it asunder in order to see the speaker of those words from among the inhabitants of the earth, and it is a confirmed truth that whoever Allah looks upon He will give that which he asks for.” [19]

TRUTHFULNESS (Sidq)

The demonstrative proofs about truthfulness (from the Quraan) are the saying of Allah: “Alif Lam Mim.  Do men think that they will be left alone on saying “We believe” and that they will not be tested?  We did test those before them and Allah will certainly know those who are true from those who are false” (Al-Ankabut 29:1-3) and His saying “And of mankind are some who say: We believe in Allah and the Last Day, but they do not (really) believe. They think to deceive Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves; and realize not. In their hearts is a disease; and Allah has increased their disease and grievous is the penalty they (incur) because they used to tell lies.”(Baqara (2:8-9).

And (the proof) from the Sunnah is the proven hadeeth in the Saheehain[20] on the authority of Mu’aath ibn Jabal, may Allah be pleased with him, when he reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “No one bears testimony to there being no one worth of worship Allah, truthfully from his heart, except that Allah makes the Hell-fire forbidden for him.”[21]

LOVE (mahabah or hubb)

The demonstrative proofs about love (from the Quraan) is the saying of Allah: “Yet of mankind are some who take unto themselves (objects of worship which they set as) rivals to Allah, loving them with a love like (that which is due to) Allah only. However, those who believe are stauncher in their love of Allah” (al-Baqara 2:165) and His saying: “O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion Allah will bring a people whom He will love and will love Him; who will be humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the way of Allah and never afraid of the blame of the reproachful…” (Maidah 5:54).And (the proof) from the Sunnah is the  proven hadeeth in the Sahih on the authority of Anis ibn Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, when he reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Whoever has three characteristics has tasted the sweetness of faith. [The first of these] is that he loves Allah and His Messenger more than he loves anyone else…” [22] (Bukhari and Muslim.).

COMPLIANCE (inqiyaad)

The demonstrative proofs about compliance (from the Quraan) is the saying of Allah: “And turn in repentance (and obedience) to your Lord and submit to Him (in Islam)…” (al-Zumar 39:54).  And Allah says: “Who is better in religion than he who submits his face (surrenders his purpose) to Allah while doing good…” (al-Nisa 4:125). And He says: “Whoever submits his whole self to Allah and is a doer of good has grasped indeed the most trustworthy hand-hold…”(Luqman 31:22), the handhold being the words LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH  (There is no one worthy of worship except Allah).  And Allah says, “But nay, by your Lord, they will not truly believe until they make you [the Messenger of Allah] judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of which you decide, and submit with full submission” (al-Nisa 4:65).And (the proof) from the Sunnah is the hadeeth in which the Prophet, may Allah’s peace be upon him, says:  “No one of you believes until his desires are in compliance with that which I have brought.” [23] This is the perfection and ultimate goal of compliance.

ACCEPTANCE (qabool)

The demonstrative proofs about acceptance (from the Quraan) is the saying of Allah: “Just in the same way whenever We sent a Warner before thee to any people the wealthy ones among them said: “We found Our fathers following a certain religion and We will certainly follow in their footsteps.  He said: “What! Even if I brought you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following?” They said: “For us We deny that you (prophets) are sent (on a mission at all). So We exacted retribution from them: now see what was the end of those who rejected (Truth)! (Zukhroof 43:23)

And His saying: “For when it was said unto them, LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH they were scornful; And said: ‘What! Shall we forsake our gods for a mad poet?” (as-Saafaat 37: 35-36).

And (the proof) from the Sunnah is the  proven hadeeth in the Sahih on the authority of Abu Musa, may Allah be pleased with him, when he reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “The example of guidance and knowledge which Allah has sent with me is like abundant rain falling on the earth.   A portion of the land was fertile soil that absorbed the rainwater and brought forth abundant vegetation and grass. Another portion of it was solid and hard which held the rainwater and thus Allah benefited the people with the rain water; they utilized it for drinking, watering their animals and irrigating their land for cultivation. Another portion of it was barren which could neither hold the water nor bring forth vegetation (nor any benefits). That is the example of the person who comprehends Allah’s religion and gets benefit from that which Allah has revealed through me, learning it well and then teaching it to others, and the example of a person who does not care for it, not even lifting his head to notice it, and does not accept Allah’s guidance which has been revealed through me.” [24]

نواقض الإسلام
اعلم أن نواقض الإسلام عشرة :
الأول : الشرك في عبادة الله تعالى ، قال الله تعالى : إن الله لا يغفر أن يشرك به ويغفر ما دون ذلك لمن يشاء وقال : إنه من يشرك بالله فقد حرم الله عليه الجنة ومأواه النار وما للظالمين من أنصار ومنه الذبح لغير الله ، كمن يذبح للجن أو للقبر .
الثاني : من جعل بينه وبين الله وسائط يدعوهم ويسالهم الشفاعة ويتوكل عليهم ، كفر إجماعاً .
الثالث : من لم يكفر المشركين أو شك في كفرهم أو صحح مذهبهم .
الرابع : من اعتقد أن غير هدي النبي أكمل من هديه ، أو أن حكم غيره أحسن من حكمه – كالذي يفضل حكم الطواغيت على حكمه – فهو كافر .
الخامس : من أبغض شيئاً مما جاء به الرسول ولو عمل به ، كفر .
السادس : من استهزأ بشيء من دين الرسول أو ثوابه أو عقابه ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ولئن سالتهم ليقولن إنما كنا نخوض ونلعب قل أبالله وآياته ورسوله كنتم تستهزءون * لا تعتذروا قد كفرتم بعد إيمانكم .
السابع : السحر ، ومنه الصرف والعطف ، فمن فعله او رضي به كفر ، والدليل قوله تعلى : وما هم بضارين به من احد إلا بأذن الله ويتعلمون ما يضرهم ولا ينفعهم .
الثامن : مظاهرة المشركين ومعاونتهم على المسلمين ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ومن يتولهم منكم فإنه منهم إن الله لا يهدي القوم الظالمين .
التاسع : من اعتقد أن بعض الناس يسعه الخروج عن شريعة محمد ، كما وسع الخضرالخروج عن شريعة موسى عليه السلام ، فهو كافر .
العاشر : الإعراض عن دين الله تعالى ، لا يتعلمه ولا يعمل به ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ومن أظلم ممن ذكر بآيت ربه ثم أعرض عنها إنا من المجرمين منتقمون .
ولا فرق في جميع هذه بين الهازل والجاد والخائف إلا المكره ، وكلها من أعظم ما يكون خطراً وأكثر ما يكون وقوعاً ، فينبغي للمسلم أن يحذرها ويخاف منها على نفسه ، نعوذ بالله من موجبات غضبه وأليم عقابه.

Nawaaqid al-Islam (Violations Invalidating Islam)[25]

Let it be known to you that there are ten violations which demolish and nullify Islam (violating it’s sanctity, contradicting it, and being totally incompatible with it).

6.Shirk (Associating partners with Allah). Allah Most High says: “… Allah does not forgive that partners should be set up with him in worship; but He forgives anything else to whom He pleases…” (Nisaa 4:48).  And Allah says: “Truly, whosoever sets up partners with Allah, then Allah has forbidden the Garden for him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the wrongdoers there are no helpers.” (Soorah Al-Maa’ida 5:72).  Shirk (has many forms) including slaughtering animals to others besides Allah, like those who slaughter to the Jinn or the graves and shrines.

2. Setting up wasaait (intermediaries) between oneself and Allah, making dua’a (supplication) to them, asking them for their shafa’ah (intercession), and placing ones ultimate trust in them, is kufr (disbelief) by ijma` (consensus).

3. Anyone who does not consider the mushrikeen (associators, idolaters and polytheists) to be disbelievers, or who has doubts concerning their disbelief, or considers their way and doctrines to be correct, is himself a kaafir (disbeliever).

4. Anyone who believes that any guidance other that the Prophet’s Guidance, peace be upon him, is more perfect than the Prophet’s, or that any rule and legal decision other than the Prophet’s rule and legal decision is better than his – for instance those who prefer the rule and legal decisions of Tawagheet (idols and tyrants, plural of Taghoot) over the Prophet’s rule, is a kaafir (disbeliever).

5. Anyone who hates and detests any part of what the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, has declared to be lawful, has nullified his Islam. [26]

  1. Anyone who ridicules and makes fun of any aspect of the religion of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, or of any of it’s rewards or punishments, becomes an kaafir (disbeleiver). The proof of this is in what Allah Most High says:  “Say: Was it Allah, and His Signs, and His Messenger, that you were mocking?  Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after your belief.” (Soorah At-Tawbah 9:65-66)

7.  The practice of as-sihr (sorcery and magic). This includes (for example) as-sarf (causing a rift between a husband and wife by turning his love for her into hatred), and al-‘atf (tempting a person to do things he dislikes using black arts). The proof of this is in what Allah says: ” But neither of these two (angels (Haroot and Maroot) taught anyone (sorcery and magic) till they had said (warning them): ‘Indeed, we are a trial, so do not disbelieve. (Al-Baqarah 2:102).

8.  Supporting and aiding the mushrikeen (associators and idolaters polytheists) against the Muslims. Allah Most High says:  “Whoever among you who takes them as allies is surely one of them. Truly, Allah does not guide the wrongdoers.” (Soorah Al-Maaida 5:51)

9. Anyone who believes that some people are permitted to be independent  from the Shariah (Law) of Muhammad, peace be upon him, just like Khidr was independent from the Shariah of Musa, peace be upon hm, is a kaafir (disbeliever). [27]

10. To avoid and turn completely away from the religion of Allah,  Most Exhaled, by neither learning it’s precepts nor acting upon it. Allah Most Exhaled  says: “And who does greater wrong than he who is reminded of the revelations of his Lord and turns aside there from Truly, We shall exact retribution from the guilty.” (Soorah As-Sajdah 32:22).[28]

It makes no difference whether such violations are committed as a joke (in a mocking manner), or in all seriousness, or out of fear and dread, excepting (of course) when done under compulsion (i.e. under severe torture and under threat of death or loss of limb, etc).  All of these violations are of the most dangerous of horrendous monstrosities even though they may occur frequently.  We seek refuge in Allah from such beliefs and deeds which necessarily bring His wrath and most painful punishment.

التوحيد ثلاثة أنواع
الأول : توحيد الربوبية : وهو الذي اقر به الكفار على زمن رسول الله ، وقاتلهم رسول الله ، ولم يدخلهم في الإسلام ، واستحل دماءهم وأموالهم ، وهو توحيد الله بفعله تعالى ، والدليل قوله تعالى : قل من يرزقكم من السماء والأرض امن يملك السمع والأبصار ومن يخرج الحي من الميت ويخرج الميت من الحي ومن يدبر الأمر فسيقولون الله فقل أفلا تتقون والآيات على هذا كثيرة جداً .
الثاني : توحيد الألوهية : وهو الذي وقع فيه النزاع من قديم الدهر وحديثه ، وهو توحيد الله بأفعال العباد ، كالدعاء والنذر والنحر والرجاء والخوف والتوكل والرغبة والرهبة والإنابة ، وكل نوع من هذه الأنواع عليه دليل من القرآن .
الثالث : توحيد الذات والأسماء والصفات : قال الله تعالى : قل هو الله أحد * الله الصمد * لم يلد ولم يولد * ولم يكن له كفواً أحد وقوله تعالى : ولله الاسماء الحسنى فادعوه بها وذروا الذين يلحدون في أسمائه سيجزون ماكانوا يعملون وقوله تعالى  ليس كمثله شيء وهو السميع البصير

Tauheed is of Three Categories [29]

1)      Tauheed ar-Ruboobiyyah (the Tauheed of Lordship).

The mushrikeen (idolaters, pagans, polytheists) at the time of the Prophet acknowledged this kind of Tauheed but their acknowledgment did not bring them into Islam, and the Messenger of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, fought against them and declared that their blood and properties may be taken legally (under the strict conditions of Islamic law).  This Tauheed is the Tauheed of Allah’s actions, may He be Exalted.  Allah says: “Say: ‘Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs?’ They will say:  “Allah”! Say: ‘Will you not then be afraid of Allah’s Punishment (for setting up rivals in worship with Allah)?” (Yunus 10:31).  The verses of Allah (in the Quran) on this subject are numerous.[30]

2)      Tauheed al-Uloohiyyah (the Tauheed of Allah’s Divinity and Godhead, of His exclusive right to be sincerely worshipped).

This is the Tauheed which has been the subject of controversy from ancient times until the modern era.  This is the Tauheed of Allah by the actions of His slave-creatures (towards Him), like worshipping Him in ad-du’aa (supplication), an-nathr (making oaths and vows), an-nahr (slaughtering), ar-rajaa (hope and longing), al-khawf (reverential fear), at-tawakkul (trust and reliance), ar-raghbah (fervent desire), ar-rahbah (fear and dread), al-inaabah (turning repentantly).  All of these forms of worship (and many others) have a specific proof and demonstration from the Book of Allah the Quran.

3)      Tauheed ath-Thaat wa al-Asmaa was-Sifaat  (the Tauheed of Allah’s exalted Being, and His Names and Attributes)

Allah says: “Say: He is Allah the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. (al-Ikhlas 112:1-4).  And He says; “And to Allah are the most Beautiful Names, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter blasphemous speech against) His Names.  The will pay the price for what they used to do.” (Al-A’araaf 7:180).  And He says: “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer All-Seer.”(ash-Shura 42:11).

ضد التوحيد الشرك
وهو ثلاثة انواع : شرك اكبر ، وشرك اصغر ، وشرك خفي .

النوع الأول من
انواع الشرك : الشرك الأكبر ، لا يغفره الله ولا يقبل معه عملاً صالحاً ، قال الله عز وجل : إن الله لا يغفر أن يشرك به ويغفر ما دون ذلك لمن يشاء ومن يشرك بالله فقد ضل ضلالاً بعيداً وقال سبحانه : لقد كفر الذين قالوا إن الله هو المسيح ابن مريم وقال المسيح يابني إسرائيل اعبدوا الله ربي وربكم إنه من يشرك بالله فقد حرم الله عليه الجنة ومأواه النار وما للظالمين من أنصار وقال تعالى : وقدمنا غلى ما عملوا من عمل فجعلناه هباءً منثوراً وقال سبحانه : لئن أشركت ليحبكن عملك ولتكونن من الخاسرين وقال سبحانه : ولو اشركوا لحبط عنهم ما كانوا يعملون .
والشرك الأكبر أربعة أنواع :

الأول : شرك الدعوة : والدليل قوله تعالى :
فإذا ركبوا في الفلك دعوا الله مخلصين له الدين فلما نجاهم الله إلى البر إذا هم يشركون .
الثاني : شركالنية والإرادة
والقصد : والدليل قوله تعالى : من كان يريد الحياة الدنيا وزينتها نوف إليهم اعمالهم فيها وهم لا يبخسون * أولئك الذين ليس لهم في الآخرة إلا النار وحبط ما صنعوا وباطل ما كانوا يعملون .
الثالث : شرك الطاعة :
والدليل قوله تعالى : اتخذوا أحبارهم ورهبانهم أرباباً من دون الله والمسيح ابن مريم وما أمروا إلا ليعبدوا إلهًا واحداً لا إله إلا هو سبحانه عما يشركون وتفسيرها الذي لا إشكال فيه :طاعة العلماء والعباد في المعصية ، لا دعاؤهم إياهم ، كما فسرها النبي لعدي بن حاتم لما سأله ، فقال لسنا نعبدهم !) فذكر له أن عبادتهم طاعتهم في المعصية الرابع : شرك المحبة : والدليل قوله تعالى : ومن الناس من يتخذ من دون الله أنداداً يحبونهم كحب الله .
النوع الثاني من أنواع الشرك
: شرك اصغر: وهو الرياء، والدليل قوله تعالى فمن كان يرجو لقاء ربه فليعمل عملاً صالحا ولا يشرك بربه أحداً.
النوع الثالث من أنواع الشرك
: شرك خفي : والدليل قوله : ( الشرك في هذه الأمة أخفى من دبيب النملة السوداء على صفاة سوداء في ظلمة الليل ) ، وكفارته قوله ( اللهم إني أعوذ بك أن أشرك بك شيئاً وأنا أعلم ، وأستغفرك من الذنب الذي لا أعلم.

The antithesis and opposite of Tauheed is Shirk [31]

Shirk is of three kinds; the major or greater shirk, the minor or lesser shirk, and the hidden shirk.

The major shirk: Allah does not forgive major or greater shirk, and He doesn’t accept any good deed from those who commit it.  Allah the Mighty and Majestic has said:   “Verily! Allah forgives not (the sin of) associating ought with Him, but forgives the lesser sins to whomsoever He pleases, and whoever associates others with Allah has indeed strayed far away. (An-Nisa 4:116). And Allah Most Exalted says:  “…But the Messiah (Jesus) said; ‘O children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.” Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his abode.  And the wrong-doers will have no helpers. (al-Ma’idah 5:72). And Allah most High says: And Allah Most High says:  And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (the idolaters) did, and We shall make their deeds like scattered floating particles of dust (al-Furqaan25:23). And Allah Most High says: “…If you join others in worship with Allah then surely (all) your deeds will be in vain and you will be of the losers.” (az-Zumar 39:65).   And Allah Most High says: “…but if they had joined others in worship with Allah all that they used to do would have been vain and of no benefit to them.”(al-An’aam 6:88).

Major shirk is of four categories:

(1) The first category of major shirk is Shirk ad-Du’aa (association in supplication).[32] The proof of this is the saying of Allah Most Exhalted: “And when they ride on a ship they call out supplicating upon Allah and making their devotion sincerely to him alone, and then when He brings them to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to Allah” (al-Ankaboot 29:65).

(2) The second category of major shirk is shirk an-Niyah wal-Iradah wal-  Qasd  (association in intention, desire and purpose). The proof of this is the saying of Allah Most Exhalted: “Whosoever desires the life of this world and its beautiful adornments, to them We shall pay in full (the wages ) of their deeds therein, and they will have no diminishment of their reward.  They are those for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter except Fire: and vain are the deeds they did therein. And of no effect  is that which they used to do” (Hood 11:15).

(3) The third category of major shirk is Shirk at-Ta’ah (association in obedience). The proof of this is the saying of Allah Most Exhalted: “They take their rabbis and monks to be their lords in derogation of Allah, and (they take as their lord) Christ the son of Maryam; yet they were not commanded except to worship One God, there is no god except He.  Praise and Glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)] (at-Tawba 9:31). [33]

(4) The forth category of major shirk is Shirk al-Muhabbah (association in loving Allah). The proof of this is the saying of Allah Most Exhalted: “And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. al-Baqarah 2:165).[34]

The lesser shirk is riyaa (showing off in worship to be seen and praised).  The proof of this is in the saying of Allah: “ So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteous deeds  and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord. (al-Kahf 18:110).

The concealed shirk is the shirk mentioned by the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when he said: “Shirk in this nation is more concealed and subtle than the footfall of the black ant on a black boulder in the darkness of the night.” [35] The expiation of the sin of this form of shirk is as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “ O Allah I seek refuge in You from knowingly associating partners with You, and I seek your forgiveness about that which I have no knowledge.” [36]

الكفر كفران
النوع الأول : كفر يخرج من الملة : وهو خمسة أنواع
:
النوع الاول : كفر التكذيب : والدليل قوله تعالى :
ومن اظلم ممن افترى على الله كذباً أو كذب بالحق لما جاءه أليس في جهنم مثوى للكافرين .
النوع الثاني : كفر الإباء
والاستكبار مع التصديق : والدليل قوله تعالى : وإذ قلنا للملائكة اسجدوا لادم فسجدوا إلا إبليس أبى واستكبر وكان من الكافرين .
النوع الثالث : كفر الشك :
وهو كفر الظن ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ودخل جنته وهو ظالم لنفسه قال ما أظن ان تبيد هذه أبداً * وما أظن الساعة قائمة ولئن رددت إلى ربي لأجدن خيراً منها ثواباً وخيراً منقلباً * قال له صاحبه وهو يحاوره أكفرت بالذي خلقك من تراب ثم من نطفة ثم سواك رجلاً * لكنا هو الله ربي ولا أشرك بربي أحداً .
النوع الرابع : كفر الإعراض :
والدليل قوله تعالى : والذين كفروا عما أنذروا معرضون .
النوع الخامس : كفر النفاق : والذليل قوله تعالى :
ذلك بإنهم ءامنوا ثم كفروا فطبع على قلوبهم فهم لا يفقهون .
النوع الثاني من نوعي الكفر : وهو كفر اصغر لا يخرج من الملة ، وهو كفر النعمة
: والدليل قوله تعالى : وضرب مثلاُ قرية كانت ءامنة مطمئنة يأتيها رزقها رغداً من كل مكان فكفرت بأنعم الله فأذاقها الله لباس الجوع والخوف بما كانوا يصنعون

Al-Kufr (Disbelief) is of Two Kinds [37]

· The Greater Kufr

The first kind of kufr (disbelief) (is the greater form which) takes one outside the Millah (community or nation of believers).   It is of five categories:

(1) Kufr at-taktheeb (disbelief by denial and rejection of truth).  The proof of this is the saying of Allah: “And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or denies the truth when it comes to him? Is there not a dwelling place in Hell for the disbelievers?”(al-Ankaboot 29: 68).

(2) Kufr al-abaa wa-istakbaar (disbelief by arrogant refusal and pride). The proof of this is the saying of Allah: “And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam.’ They all prostrated except Iblees, he arrogantly refused and waxed proud and was one of the disbelievers.”(al-Baqara 2:34).

(3) Kufr ash-shakk wa kufr aththan(disbelief by doubt and disbelief by suspicion and misgivings). The proof of this is the saying of Allah: “And he went into his garden while in a state of injustice and iniquity, saying (to himself): ‘I don’t think that this will ever perish!’ And I don’t think that the Hour will ever come, and if indeed (it does and) I am brought back to my Lord, I surely will find a better place than this when I return to Him.  His companion said to him, disputing with him: ‘Do you disbelieve in Him who has created you out of dust and then out of a mixed clot and them fashioned you into a man? As for my part (I believe) He is Allah, my Lord, and none shall I associate as partner with my Lord!’”(al-Kahf 18:35-38).

(4) Kufr al-’iraad (disbelief by avoidance and turning away). The proof of this is the saying of Allah:  “And those who disbelieve turn away from that which they are warned.” (al-Ahqaaf46:3).

(5) Kufr an-nefaaq (disbelief by hypocrisy). The proof of this is the saying of Allah: “That is because they believed then they disbelieved; therefore their hearts have been sealed and thus they do not understand.” (al-Munaafiqoon 63:3).

The lesser kufr

The second kind of kufr (disbelief) is the lesser form which does not take one outside the Millah, and it is (called) kufr an-ne’mah (partial denial of ingratitude of Allah’s blessings). The proof of this is the saying of Allah: “And Allah puts forward as an example a town (Mecca) which dwelt secure and well content, its provision coming to it in abundance from every quarter, but it denied the Favors and Blessings of Allah with ingratitude.  So Allah made them taste the extreme of hunger and fear as a consequence of that which they used to do.”(an-Nahl 16:112).

أنواع النفاق
النفاق
نوعان : اعتقادي وعملي :
النفاق الاعتقادي : ستة انواع ، صاحبها من أهل الدرك
الأسفل من النار :
الأول : تكذيب الرسول
.
الثاني : تكذيب بعض ما جاء
به الرسول .
الثالث : بغض
الرسول .
الرابع : بغض
بعض ما جاء به الرسول .
الخامس : المسرة بأنخفاض دين الرسول
.
السادس : الكراهية بانتصار
دين الرسول .
النفاق
العملي : خمسة أنواع : والدليل قوله : ( آية المنافق ثلاث : إذا حدث كذب ، وإذا وعد أخلف ، وإذا ائتمن خان ) وفي رواية :  إذا خاصم فجر ، وإذا عاهد غدر

An-Nefaaq (Hypocrisy) is of Two Kinds [38]

  1. Nefaaq ‘iteqaadi (Hypocrisy of belief).
  2. Nefaaq ‘amali (Hypocrisy of action).

The nefaaq al-‘iteqqadi is of six categories, and anyone who commits one or more of these is of the lowest depths of the Hell-Fire:

  1. Calling the Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, a liar (or denial of the truth of his statements)
  2. Denial of any part of the Message which the Messenger brought, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.
  3. Detesting or disliking the Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.
  4. Detesting or disliking any part of that which the Messenger brought, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him,
  5. Being happy about the decrease and reduction of the religion of the Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him (i.e. by the victory of the disbelievers over the believers)
  6. Being displeased by the victory of the religion of the Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.

The nefaaq al-‘amali is of five categories, the proof being the saying of the Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him: “The sign of the hypocrite is three: if he talks he lies, if he promices he breaks his promice, and if he is entrusted he cheats.” And in another narration (we find the additional two categories): “and if he argues he abuses, and if he makes a soloum contract  he treacherously betrays his trust.”[39]

معنى الطاغوت ورؤوس أنواعه
اعلم رحمك الله تعالى أنّ أول ما فرض
الله على ابن آدم الكفر بالطاغوت والإيمان بالله ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ولقد بعثنا في كل أمة رسولاً أنِ اعبدوا اللهَ واجتنبوا الطاغوت .
فأمّا صفة الكفر بالطاغوت أن
تعتقد بطلان عبادة غير الله وتتركها وتبغضها وتكفِّر أهلها وتعاديهم .
وأمّا
معنى الإيمان بالله أن تعتقد أنّ الله هو الإله المعبود وحده دون سواه. وتخلص جميع أنواع العبادة كلها لله. وتنفيها عن كل معبود سواه ،وتحب أهل الإخلاص وتواليهم. وتبغض أهل الشرك وتعاديهم. وهذه ملّة إبراهيم التي سفه نفسه مَن رغب عنها. وهذه هي الأسوة التي أخبر الله بها في قوله تعالى : قد كانت لكم أسوة حسنة في إبراهيم والذين معه إذ قالوا لقومهم إنّا بُرآءُ منكم وممّا تعبدون من دون الله كفرنا بكم وبدا بيننا وبينكم العدواة والبغضاء أبداً حتى تؤمنوا بالله وحده .
والطاغوت عام في كل ما عُبد
من دون الله ورضي بالعبادة من معبود أو متبوع أو مطاع في غير طاعة الله ورسوله فهو طاغوت.
والطواغيت كثيرة ورؤوسهم خمسة :

الأول : الشيطان الداعي إلى عبادة
غير الله ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ألم أعهد إليكم يا بني ءادم أن لا تعبدوا الشيطان إنه لكم عدو مبين .
الثاني : الحاكم الجائر
المغير لأحكام الله ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ألم تر إلى الذين يزعمون أنهم ءامنوا بما أنزل إليك وما أنزل من قبلك يريدون أن يتحاكموا إلى الطاغوت وقد أمروا أن يكفروا به ويريد الشيطان أن يضلهم ضلالاً بعيداً .
الثالث : الذي يحكم بغير ما
أنزل الله ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ومن لم يحكم بما أنزل الله فأولئك هم الكافرون .
الرابع :
الذي يدّعي علم الغيب من دون الله ، والدليل قوله تعالى : عالم الغيب فلا يظهر على غيبه أحداً إلا من ارتضى من رسول فإنه يسلُك من بين يديه ومن خلفه رصداً ، وقال تعالى : وعنده مفاتح الغيب لا يعلمها إلا هو ويعلم ما في البر والبحر وماتسقط من ورقة إلا يعلمها ولا حبة في ظلمات الأرض ولا رطب ولا يابس إلا في كتاب مبين .
الخامس : الذي يعبد من دون
الله وهو راض بالعبادة ، والدليل قوله تعالى : ومن يقل منهم إني إله من دونه فذلك نجزيه جهنم كذلك نجزي الظالمين .
واعلم أن الإنسان ما يصير
مؤمنا بالله إلا بالكفر بالطاغوت ، والدليل قوله تعالى : فمن يكفر بالطاغوت ويؤمن بالله فقد استمسك بالعروة الوثقى لا انفصام لها والله سميع عليم ، الرشد : دين محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ، والغي : دين أبي جهل ، والعروة الوثقى : شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله ، وهي متضمنة للنفي والإثبات ، تنفي جميع أنواع العبادة عن غير الله ، وتثبت جميع أنواع العبادة كلها لله وحده لا شريك له

The meaning of Taaghoot[40] and its Major Categories

Let it be known to you, may Allah have mercy on you (O you seeker of truth) that the first obligation upon (all) the sons of Aadam is the “kufr bit-Taaghoot” [41] (rejection of idol worship), and the belief in Allah.  The proof of this is the saying of Allah most exalted: “And assuredly We have sent among every people a messenger (with the command): Worship Allah and eschew Taaghoot.(an-Nahl 16:36).

The way of rejecting Taaghoot is to believe that its worship is false and nullified, to leave and abandon it totally, to hate and detest it, to declare all those who practice it as kaafir (disbelievers), and to become their dire enemies.

The way of believing on Allah is to believe that Allah is the one and only God who is due worship, taking no other as God besides Him, to sincerely worship Him with all the (prescribed) forms of worship, to refute and reject all other objects of worship, to love the people of sincere worship making them your friends and allies, and to hate and despise the people of shirk, making them your worst enemies.  This is the example of Ibraheem which Allah has informed us about in His saying: “There is for you an excellent example (to follow) in Abraham and those with him when they said to their people: ‘We are clear of you and of whatever you worship besides Allah; we have rejected you, and there has arisen between us and you hostility and hatred forever – unless you believe in Allah and Him alone… (al-Mumtahinah 60:4).

Taaghoot is a general term of classification.  Everything and anything which is worshipped other than Allah and is pleased with that worship, whether the thing is an object of worship or of  subordination or of obedience in conflict with the obedience of Allah and His Messenger, is a Taaghoot.  Tawaagheet are many (and varied), but the principal tawaagheet of the world are specified as five:

1)      Satan, who calls man to worship others besides Allah, the proof being  the saying of Allah Most Exaulted: “Did not I ordain for you, O children of Adam, that you should not worship ash-Shaitaan (Satan).  Verily he is your plain (and sworn) enemy.” (Yaseen 36:60).

2)      The unjust tyrannical ruler, who rules by his whim rather than Allah’s Law, the proof being  the saying of Allah Most Exaulted “Have you seen those who pretend to believe in what has been revealed to you and what has been revealed before you, how they go  for their legal-judgements to the Taghoot, even though they have been ordered to disbelieve in it. But Satan wishes  to lead them far astray.” (Al-Nisa` 4:60]

3)      Anyone who judges arbitrarily according to custom and legal precepts other than Allah’s Just Law, the proof being  the saying of Allah Most Exaulted: “ And whoever does not judge (and rule) by what Allah has revealed, verily, they are the disbelievers.” (al-Maidah 5:44).

4)      Anyone who alleges knowledge of the unseen (without revelation from Allah), the proof being  the saying of Allah Most Exaulted: “(He alone is) the All-Knower of the Unseen, and He reveals to none His Unseen – Except to a Messenger whom He has chosen, and then He makes a troop of guardian (angels) to march before and behind him.” (al-Jinn 72:27). And Allah Most Exhaulted  says: “And with Him are the keys of the Unseen (and Hidden); none knows them except He.  And He knows whatever there is in the earth and in the sea; not even a leaf fall but He knows it.  There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything moist (and fresh) or dry (and hard) but it is written in a Clear Record-Book.” (al-An’aam 6:59).

5)      Anyone who allows himself to be worshipped and is pleased by such worship, the proof being  the saying of Allah Most Exaulted: “And if any of them would say ‘Verily I am a god besides Him (Allah)’ such a person We would recompence with Hell.  Thus We recompence the injust and iniquitous.” (al-Anbiyaa 21:29).

And let it be know that no person becomes (a Muslim and) a believer (Mu`min) in Allah except by the rejection (kufr) of the Taaghoot, the proof being the saying of Allah Most Exhaulted : “Whoever rejects Taaghoot (evil, idols, etc.) and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy hardhold that never breaks, and Allah is All-Seer, All-Knower.” (al-Baqarah 2:256).  The Rushd [42](rightly quided way) is the deen (way and religion) of Muhammad (the Messenger of Allah) may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, whereas the Ghai (way of extreme wrong and misguidance) is the deen of Abi Jahl.[43] The most trustworthy handhold is the testimony that “LAA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH” (there is no god (worhty of worship) except Allah) which includes within it a negation and an affirmation, a negation of all worship offered to other than Allah, and a affirmation that all worhip is due (rightfully) to Allah alone who has no peer nor partner.[44]

——-Concluded——–

الحمد لله رب العالمين  الذي بعونه تتم الصالحات

والصلاة والسلام  على رسوله المصطفى الأمين وآ له وصحبه ومن أتبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

All praises for Allah who by His aid are all good deeds completed, and peace and blessings be upon the Messenger Muhammad the Trustworthy One and his family and companions and those that follow them and their way until the Day of Judgment

اللهم صلّ على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما صليت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد

وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد

O Allah may the prayer (for all good) be upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you have given your  prayer (for all good) upon Ibraheem and the family of Ibraheem, – Verily you are Praiseworthy, Glorious.  And bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you have Ibraheem and the family of Ibraheem – Verily you are Praiseworthy, Glorious.

…If I have been correct in the words above then the praise is for Allah and His messenger only, who are the source of all Truth,, and if I have made any mistake then it is from me and the Shaitaan, and most definitely Allah and His Messenger are absolved and free of it.     We ask Allah, the Most Gracious and Merciful, to accept our good deeds and forgive our misdeeds, only He, the Exalted, is al-Qareeb (the Near One) al-Mujeeb (the Acceptor).   May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad, and upon his family, his companions and his followers until the Last Day…

NOTES:


[1] Islam (or Islaam) is the name of the religion, or more properly the “Deen” (as explained below), which Allah has revealed and which has been practiced by all of the Prophets and Messengers of Allah sent to mankind.  Even the name stands out unique among religions in that it means a state of  being and does not refer to any particular person like Christianity, Buddhism or Zoroastrianism, or tribe like Judaism, or group like Hinduism, or book like Taoism, etc.  The root Arabic word “s-l-m” from which Islam is derived implies peace, safety, salutation, protection, blamelessness, wholesomeness, submission, acceptance, surrender, salvation. Islam specifically means being in the state of submission to Allah, worshipping Him alone and reverently accepting and obeying His Law, and the peace, security, and wholesome well-being which follows; hence a Muslim or Muslimah is the person (male or female) in that state whether completely or with some imperfections which do not nullify Islam.  Sins, ignorance, and wrong-doings weaken Islam and Iman (or Eemaan: faith and belief) proportionally, whereas the greater shirk (idolatry) and the greater kufr (disbelief) nullify and destroy Islam completely.  The five arkaan (pillars) of Islam are: shahadah (testimony that LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH MUHAMMAD-AR-RASULU-L-LAH), salaat (prayer), zakaat (alms) saum (fasting) and hajj (pilgrimage).  This booklet relates only to the first pillar (ash- Shahadah) explaining its foremost obligations.

[3] These three principles (Usuul ath-Thalaatha) are the subject of a treatise Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab wrote in response to a request from Ameer Abul-Aziz ibn Saud for him to write a creed for the general public. Usuul ath-thalaahta consequently became universally recognized as one of the most simple and precise creeds worthy for Muslims to render by heart, and has been expounded upon and translated into many languages.  The excellent explanation of Sheikh Salih al-Uthameen has been translated into English by Daood Burbank (Hidaayah Publ.). These three principles are clearly taken from the well known hadith about the three questions to be asked by the angels in the grave — Who is your Lord? What is your religion? Who is your Prophet?

[4] Rabb and Rubuubiyah (Lordship) encompasses the meanings of creation, sovereignty, dominion, ownership, mastery, sustenance, providing, nurturing, raising and bringing up, and when attributed to Allah Most Exhaled, of Perfect Absolute Lordship and Divinity in all of the above.

[5] Deen is more than a religion in the western Christian Judaic sense since it encompasses an entire way of life guided by the canonical law of the Quran (Revealed Book of Allah) and the Sunnah (way, teachings and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, and thus includes a supreme  moral code and law regulating  all aspects of life whether the sacred and religious or secular and mundane, individual and social, personal and public, local, national and international.  The Deen of Islam stands opposed to a secular ideology separating “religion” from the state, it’s institutions, and personal, social, economical, legal, political, and military affairs.

[6] A Nabi (prophet, pl. anbiyaa) is he to whom Allah has revealed His sacred revelation, whereas a Rasool (Messanger =rasuul or rasul , pl. rusul) not only has received Allah’s revelation but is commissioned to pronounce, practice and enforce the Message of Allah and a Divine Revealed Law given especially to him for his ummah (community of faithful, nation or era).  The Nabi may be likewise commissioned but often follows the Revealed Law of a previous Rasool.  Allah has sent many anbiyaa and a few rusul:  the greatest of the being Nuuh (Noah), Ibraaheem (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Eisaa (Jesus), and Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon all of them.  All rusul are also anbiyaa but a Nabi may not necessarily be a Rasool.

[7] Tauheed; often the transliteralization is given as tawheed or sometimes tuheed or tauhid or tauhid,  etc, but  the “u” or “aw” and “i” may confuse English speakers, so “tauheed” has been retained, just as we would transliterate day as yaum and not yawm.    The Arabic root of tauheed is the intensified form of wahada “to be one”: thus wahhada “to make one.”  The specific meaning in this specific Islamic context is to wahada-llah “to make Allah one,” meaning in faith, belief and practical worship. Often the word is translated as Monotheism, or Unitarianism, but these words sometimes carry incorrect connotations for English speakers from the Christian-Judaic traditions. Tauheed must be qualified as Islamic Monotheism, hence an alternative translation can be the Oneness of Allah, or Unicity of Allah, as some have proposed, or other phrases that better capture the meaning.  The reality that Allah is One necessitates to believe in and practice the Oneness of Allah who alone is Lord Creator and God and alone is worthy of worship.

[8] The root word of shirk implies partnership: thus shirk as an antithesis of tauheed includes all forms of idolatry, polytheism, pantheism, monism, atheism, and/or associating any peers or partners, in belief or practice, with Allah in His Rububiyyah (Lordship), Uluhiyyah (Divinity) or Asma` wa Siffat (His Names and Attributes).

[9] The two basic fundamentals of Islam given here are in correlation with  the two essential parts of the Shahada (Testimony) of Islam:  “LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH” There is no god except Allah.  The first fundamental is a negation of the existence and right of worship of any other god other than Allah.  The second fundamental is the affirmation that sincere worship is due only to Allah. This is the central theme of the sources of Islam; the Quran and the Sunnah, upon which is based the entire “Deen” of Islam and Iman (or Eemaan, faith and belief).  These are the two essential elements or arkaan of the shahada “LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH.”   The conditions or sharoot of the shahadah are given below in detail.

[10] Kufr will be explained in detail below in a separate section.

[11] By “conditions” it is meant those pre-requisites which are necessary for the existence of that which they are conditional.  Shuroot (conditions; shart, sing.) are similar to arkaan (supports, basic and chief elements; rukn, sing.) in that both are necessary for the thing’s existence. A shart is to be distinguished from a rukn in that it is considered outside the thing’s essential being whereas a rukn is considered an integral part of that thing’s essential being.  For instance, to make wudu (ablution) is a shart (condition) of an acceptable salaat (prayer), whereas to recite the fatiha (opening chapter of the Quran) is rukn (essential element) of the salat itself.  Giving a biological corollary, air, sun-energy, and water are shuroot for life, whereas in the human case a heart, head, and lungs are arkaan.  Of course we know that shroot and arkaan are inseparably intertwined in actual existence.

Some scholars have added to these seven the condition of denying every other object of worship except Allah, and the condition of adhering to the shahadah of LA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH until death, although it could be said that these are implied by the preceding.  The study of and explanation of sharoot (conditions) and arkaan (essential elements) is based upon a comprehensive assimilation of the sources of Islam, the Quran and Sunnah.

It may be noted that knowledge, certainty, and truthfulness deal more with aspect of existence and the knowledge and affirmation of that existence, whereas acceptance, compliance, love and sincerity deal more with action and the moral imperatives and emotions necessary for the completion of successful action.  Knowledge and action (ilm wa aml) are the basis of all life functions.

[12] A prominent aspect of the writings of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab is that he emphasizes that every and all claims about religious creed, doctrine, law, and practice must have a demonstrative proof from the Quran and/or the Sunnah, and even the most common Muslim should begin to memorize and understand these proofs.  Only by spreading correct and detailed knowledge and practice among the masses can ignorance, superstition, innovation, saint-worship, oppression, and tyranny be curtailed and prevailed upon.  The proofs indicated in this short booklet and its likes are merely representative and this has given rise to many “shurooh’ (more complete commentaries). Some have added the condition that one must remain upon Islam and Imam (faith) until death, but this is implied in the seven here.

[13] The Sahih literature is that which is recognized to be correct, authentic and sound, and may include traditions from other than the most universally recognised sahih books, as-sahihain: al-Bukhari and Muslim.

[14] Reported by Muslim.

[15] Reported by Bukhari and Muslim

[16] Reported by Bukhari and Muslim

[17] Reported by Bukhari and Muslim

[18] Reported by Bukhari and Muslim

[19] This particular hadeeth is considered weak in its chain of narrators.  Nevertheless there are other sahih traditions which convey similar meanings.

[20] As mentioned previously the two most correct and confirmed books of authority of hadeeth by the consensus of the Ulamaa are Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim..

[21] Reported by Bukhari and Muslim

[22] Reported by Bukhari and Muslim

[23] Although an-Nawwawi in his celebrated book “al-Arba’een” (the collection of forty traditions) has declared this hadeeth to be sahih and some scholars have conferred with his judgment, the majority consider the chain of narrators to be weak. The meaning of the hadith is recognized as generally correct but the actual words are not to be prescribes as of the messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.

[24] Bukhari and Muslim.

[25] An-Naaqid (pl.nawaaqid) is that which nullifies, contradicts, and demolishes something.  The following nawaaqid are some of the major violations and are not meant to be taken to be an exclusive list.

[26] Numerous proofs of this violation exit, one of which is the saying of Allah: “This is because they hate what Allah has sent down, so He has made their deeds fruitless” (Muhammad 47:9).

[27] One of the proofs of this is Allah’s saying: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he will be from among the losers.” (Aal-Imraan 3:85)

[28] Another clear proof of this is the saying of Allah:  “And those who disbelieve turn away from that about which they are warned.” (al-Ahqaaf 46:3)

[29] These three categories are clearly seen in the beginning of a-Fatiha: All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.  Most Beneficent, Most Merciful.  Sovereign-Judge on the Day of Judgment… ” and in the last chapter of the Quran, An-Nass: “Say, I seek refuge in the Lord of Mankind, the Sovereign -King of Mankind, the God of Mankind…”  The Arab custom was to begin and end any speech with the most important.

Some scholars have classified Tauheed into two categories: Tauheed of knowledge and affirmation, and Tauheed of intention and action, in line what has preceded on the importance of knowledge and action (ilm wa aml) in the religion of Allah.  The first classification emphasizes Allah’s Exhaled Sovereignty, Divinity, and Beautiful Names and Attributes.   Tauheed al-Uloohiyah comes from the same root “ilah” which the word ilah (god) and Allah (the God) are derived, emphasizing Allah’s Godhead and His Divinity.  Sometimes Tauheed al-Uloohiyah is called Tauheed al-Uboodiyah (worship) to emphasize that the servants of Allah all must worship and adore Him.

The two classifications of Tauheed are essentially two ways of looking at the same reality.

[30] For instance, Allah’s saying: “Say: To whom belong the earth and all being therein?  Say, do you know?  O They will say, “to Allah”.  Say: will you not receive admonition?  O Say: who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne?  O They will say, “Allah”.  Say: will you not then fear Allah?  O Say: In whose Hand is the Sovereignty of all things?  Who protects (all) while against Whom there is no protector; if you know?  O They will say, “(All that belongs) to Allah”.  Say: Then how are you deluded (from the truth).”(al-Muminoon 23:84-89).

[31] As mentioned above shirk includes all forms of idolatry, polytheism, pantheism, monism, atheism, and/or associating any peers or partners, in belief or practice, with Allah in His Rububiyah (Lordship), Uluhiyah (Divinity) or Asma` wa Siffat (His Names and Attributes).

[32] This form of shirk is especially prevalent among those who frequent the visitation of the graves and mausoleums of the pious saints, whether truly pious or fictional,  seeking from them in supplications and vowings and offerings that which only Allah the Lord owns and controls like sustenance and healing and sacred blessings etc.  In the Christian Catholic tradition various patron saints are supplicated each accouding to his particular alleged realm just as in many polytheistic traditions.   Often what leads ignorant Muslims into this form of shirk is seeking the “waseelah” (approchment, and means to become close) from the saints by asking them to ask Allah on their behave for some favor just as one might ask a minister or aid to ask the King or President. Allah is free of all partners and needs none to bring the supplications of His servants to Him.  The only correct manner of waseelah in three categories: to ask Allah by His Names and Attributes like when we say Oh Allah by your mercy forgive and have mercy on us; to ask Allah by the fact that you have offered to Him worship sincerely like the case of the three who were trapped in the cave and each asked Allah by the best of their previous deeds to allow them to escape entrapment; and by directly asking a pious servant of Allah to supplicate to Allah for your benefit on the condition that he is alive, present and practicing strict Tauheed.  Thus it is never allowed to ask the dead who are in the in graves.  We send salutations to the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and ask Allah to grant us the prophets intersession (shafa’ah) on the day of resurrection as mentioned in the hadiths but never call upon him in supplication and worship as the ignorant do, which even many non-Muslims realize and have mentioned is repugnant to the very essence of tauheed.

[33] It is reported that the Prophet recited this verse in the presence of ‘Idi ibn Haatim at-Taa’i who said: “O Messenger of Allah, we don’t worship them”.  The Prophet said: “Don’t they legalize that which Allah has forbidden and you legalize it (too)?  And don’t they forbid that which Allah has made legal and legitimate and you forbid it (too)?” He said: “Yes, certainly”.  He said: “That is their worship of them”. Reported by at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Jareer and al-Baihaqi, and others, and a narration of this tradition  has been declared as hasan (good) by some scholars including Sheikh Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen al-Albani in his book entitled “Sahih Sunan at-Tirmidhi”, although others have questioned its validity.   The essential meaning is clear although that those who claim and take the attribute of lawmaking and legislation for themselves in derogation of the law of Allah and His messenger in the Quran and Sunnah has performed shirk by becoming a Taaghoot as will be explained below, and those who willfully obey them in their tyrannical laws have committed shirk-at-Ta’ah.

[34] The verse continues to mention the reality that : “But those who believe love Allah more (than anything else).”

[35] Reported by al-Haakim who claimed it to be sahih.  Other scholars have considered it to be an acceptable narration but of a lesser grade than sahih, especially considering the fact that there are other similar narations which bear witness to its validity.  Some have considered the tradition to be weak. The genneral meaning although is correct.

[36] Reported by  Imam Ahmad and others with a “good” chain of narrators.

[37] The root word in Arabic “k-f-r” signifies covering, hiding, and ingratitude.   Kufr as opposed to Iman (Eemaan, Islamic belief and faith) includes the denial and rejection (covering) of the truth of Allah and His Prophets and Messengers, denial and rejection of the right of Allah to be worshipped sincerely, denial and rejection of the right of Allah and His Prophets and Messengers to be obeyed, and ingratitude towards Allah’s multiple blessings.

[38] Scholars of the Arabic language have noted that nifaaq (hypocrisy) is taken from the word nafaq (tunnel), and that the nature of the mouse and similar rodents is to escape and hide from danger by way of the numerous tunnels to and from their living area. Similarly the hypocrite always tries to escape being caught in his lies, deceits, and treachery by running away and/or showing two-faces and avoiding direct confrontation. Nifaaq is two faced in that the munaafiq openly shows to the people Islam in word and deed, but inwardly holds Kufr.    Sometimes he reveals his true state to special companions and in certain circumstances.  The sins of the nifaaq al-’iteqaadi are to be added to the nawaaqid al-Islam and types of kufr which have preceded: that is, if they can be legally proven without doubt, which invariably may be difficult considering that some of them are hidden emotions.  Precisely because they are hidden and difficult to prove they remain forms of nifaaq and hidden kufr instead of open nawaaqid or kufr.

[39] These traditions are in the sahih literature.

[40] The linguistic root of the word taaghoot means excessiveness, to exceed all proper pounds.  The salaf as-saalih ( righteous predecessors) have given various definitions of taaghoot as a way of illustration and example; Satan, idols, soothsayers, sorcerers, tyrannical rulers, false legislators etc.   This comprehensive term includes all that is worshipped other than Allah, whether alive or non-living, on the condition that if it is a living being it is pleased with the false worship or is quiet and does not reject.  Thus Jesus and the angels, and many of the saints whose graves are worshiped, are not taaghoot because they have rejected, rebuked and totally repudiated all false worship especially those who worship them.

[41] Kufr here means to disbelieve in and deny the lordship or divinity or legal right of worshipping, following and obeying the taaghoot, categorically rejecting, repudiating, and absolving one self from it in all form and content.

[42] The allusion here and in what follows is to the preceding part of the Quranic verse cited which reads: “There is no compulsion in Deen (religion).  The Rushd (Rightly-Guided Way) has become distinct from the Ghai  (way of extreme wrong and misguidance).  Whoever rejects Taaghoot (evil, idols, etc.)….”

[43] Abu Jahl was the ring-leader of the idol-worshippers of the Qurash tribe who also happened to be the uncle of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.  He was the most ardent propagator of the worship of idols and tawaagheet, the most vehement sworn enemy of Islam, the Messenger his nephew, and all Muslims, and there are many infamous stories about his leadership in the persecution of the Prophet and the early Muslims.

[44] Note that the conclusion of the booklets re-emphasizes the two basic fundamentals of Islam given at the beginning of the booklet: the negation and the affirmation which are the central theme of the entire “Deen” of Islam and of the shahadah “LAA ILAAHA ILLA-L-LAH”.   Remember what was mentioned previously about the custom of the Arabs to begin and end any discourse with the most crucial points to remember

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